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CARPET, PERSIA, ABOUT 1600. IN THE BERNHEIMER COLLECTION, MUNICH, 



" " ' 



PATTERN 
DESIGN 

A book for Students, treating in a practical 

way of the anatomy, planning and 

evolution of repeated ornament 

By 

LEWIS F. DAY 

SECOND EDITION 
Revised and Enlarged by 

AMOR FENN 

Author of "Abstract Design" 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

LONDON: B. T. BATSFORD LTD. 
1933, 

9<*>*^ <lS&^<^Hk^<Z>*^ 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

THE exhaustion of a further edition of " Pattern Design " 
and the steady demand for the work are an indication of its 
continuing practical value as a textbook, but it seemed 
advisable that it should be thoroughly revised and brought 
up to date ; and it was decided to entrust the work to Mr 
Amor Fenn, who, as a personal friend of Lewis F Day, was 
conversant with his work and in sympathy with his aims 
and methods. Consequently, the book for the first time 
since its appearance has received a thorough overhaul ; the 
order of the chapters has been rearranged, and that on 
Bordersa subject Mr Fenn has made particularly his 
own has been transformed and re-illustrated. A number 
of illustrations have been redrawn or replaced, and others 
added, including two coloured plates, while the Editor 
has contributed a chapter summarising the course of the 
design of pattern during the past eighty years down to 
the present day, illustrated by the representative work of 
well-known English and Continental designers. It is the 
hope and desire of every one connected with the book 
that it may maintain its position as a standard work, and 
continue or enhance its usefulness to students and others 
connected with design and pattern, the importance of which 
in everyday life is being increasingly realised. 

It is with deep grief and regret that we have to record 
that Mr Amor Fenn was suddenly taken from us while this 
book was passing through the press, and consequently did 
not survive to see the finished result of his work. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 

StpUmfcr 1933. 



NOTE OF 
ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 

I DESIRE to record my indebtedness to the 
following who have kindly supplied, or per- 
mitted of the reproduction of, material for new 
illustrations Firma Julius Hoffmann, Stutt- 
gart, Figs. 268 and 269 from ** Der Moderne 
Stil," V., and frontispiece and Figs 258, 
2720 and D from " The Art Worker's 
Studio '' , Editions d'Art Albert LeVy, Paris, 
for Figs. 271, 272 A and B from Georges 
Valmier, u De*cors ct Couleurs," Album 
No. i ; Charles Moreau, Editions d'Art, 
Paris, Fig. 270 from " Tapis et Tissus " ; 
the Wallpaper Manufacturers Ltd., Man- 
chester, for Figs, 261, 2648, 266 A and B, and 
267A and B, Fig. 165, drawn by the late 
Richard Glazier, is from his " Historic 
Textile Fabrics"; Figs. 23, 178, 183, 211, 
and 254 are from designs by Mr Harry Napper, 
and Fig 268A and B by Mr C. F. A Voysey. 
Figs 265 A and B are from the Publishers' 
" Modern Decorative Art in England," by 
W. G Paulson Townsend, and Figs. 264A 
and 2613 from B. J Talbert's " Examples of 
Ancient and Modern Furniture " 

AMOR FJENN. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

A MAN has a right, I suppose, to pull down the building he 
once put up, and to raise another in its place. If he should 
see fit to use sometimes the very stones which belonged 
to it, he would only be stealing from himself. I have done 
something very much like that. 

In the course of the last fifteen years the times have 
changed, and with them the standpoint of students and 
teachers of design ; and, though my point of view has not 
altered, my outlook has widened with experience. When 
it came to the revision of * c The Anatomy of Pattern ' ? with 
a view to a fifth edition, it seemed to me I had done all 
I could do to it, that it was past mending, and that the 
simplest thing would be to start afresh. 

The present volume, however, though it covers the ground 
of the former one, and answers much the same purpose, is 
not the same, but really a new book upon the foundations of 
the old one. 

It contains, indeed, all that was in the other, but otherwise 
expressed. Here and there an explanation or description, 
which, by revision after revision, had been reduced to the 
fewest and plainest words I could find, has been allowed to 
stand. So with the illustrations, the greater number of 
them are new. Such of the old diagrams as were essential 
to the purpose of the book have been drawn again, not 
merely on the larger scale allowed by the page, but in a 
simpler and more self-explanatory way. 

It will be seen from them and from the table of contents 
that " Pattern Design " covers much more ground than 
' ' The Anatomy of Pattern . ' ' But it does not go beyond its 
subject. The appearance, since the original publication of 



via PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

my little books, of a number of similar volumes each attempt- 
ing to embrace more than the one before it, has firmly con- 
vinced me that the better plan is to confine oneself to a 
definite subject, and to treat it thoroughly. The last word, 
of course, is never said so long as there is life left in it. 

I know very well that knowledge gained in practice can 
be only very partially conveyed in words , but something of 
the experience of five and thirty years and more in practical 
pattern design is surely communicable ; and, for what it is 
worth, I give it here. 

LEWIS F. DAY. 



1st September 1903. 



CONTENTS. 



PACE 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION v 

NOTE OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT . vi 

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION . vii 

CHAPTPR 

I. WHAT PATTERN IS i 

Pattern not understood The meaning of the word 
Comes of repetition, and is closely connected with 
manufacture Has always a geometric basis Use and 
necessity of system in design Lines inevitable, and 
must not be left to chance. 

II. THE SQUARE 10 

Geometry the basis of all pattern Breaks in the simple 
stripe give cross-lines Hence the lattice and the 
chequer, on which a vast variety of pattern is built. 

III. THE TRIANGLE 18 

The square lattice crossed by diagonal lines gives the 
triangle Hence the diamond And out of that the 
hexagon, the star, and other geometric units familiar in 
Arab diaper 

IV. THE OCTAGON 23 

Four series of lines give the octagon Not the unit of a 
complete pattern, but the basis of some radiating patterns 
More complicated cross-lines, giving sixteen and 
eighteen sided figures, result in more elaborate pattern, 
but involve no new principle Pentagon pattern really 
built on simple trellis lines. 

V. THE CIRCLE 27 

The circle gives no new plan but only curvilinear versions 
of the foregoing The wave a rounded zig-2ag The 
honeycomlxcompressed circles Segments of circles give 
scale pattern, a curvilinear variation upon diamond 
The ogee The circle itself a scaffolding for design. 

VI. THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN ... 39 

Various starting points for the same pattern Six ways 
in which it mignt have been evolved The construction of 
sundry geometric diapers Influence of material upon 
designSome complex lattices 



x CONl&JNlb. 

CHAPTER PAGF 

VII. BORDERS 53 

What a border is Includes frieze, pilaster, frame, &c 
Simplicity Short interval of repeat Flowing and broken 
borders Mere lines " Stop " borders Frets Evolute 
Zig-zag Chevron Undulate Guilloche Interlacing 
Chain Strap Branching lines Spiral scroll 
Counterchange Intermittent borders Block bordei 
Panel border The S scroll Natural growth 
Enclosed borders Fringes, frc Strong and weak side 
of border Direction of border Corners and their influ- 
ence upon design Circular and concentric borders, 

VIII. PRACTICAL PATTERN PLANNING . . 86 

Possible and practicable lines of pattern construction 
Lines often fixed for the designer Conditions of produc- 
tion affect plan Triangular plan, onental Rectangular 
plan, western Relation of one plan to the other of tri- 
angular and octagonal repeat to rectangular Possi- 
bilities of the diamond Design regulated by proportions 
of repeat. 

IX. THE TURNOVER 92 

A weaver's device Doubles width of pattern Exact 
turnover not desirable where conditions do not make it 
necessary Balance must be preserved Use of doubling 
over in border design Suited to stencilling and pouncing. 

X, THE " DROP " REPEAT . 100 

Scope given by drop repeat Designed on diamond lines 
And on the square Geometrically same result Practi- 
cally different patterns Opportunity of carrying pattern 
beyond width of stuff Brick or masonry plan Octagonal 
plan Step pattern False drop. 

XI. SMALLER REPEATS 122 

Width of repeat divisible into width of material Repeat 
two-thirds or two-fifths of width of material Full width 
repeat seeming smaller Variety in apparent uniformity 
Weavers' ways of doing it Same principle applied to 
larger design Method and haphazard More com- 
plicated system Other plans for disguising precise order 
of small repeats. 

XII. SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS .... 139 

Importance of variety of plan Area of pattern not 
confined to area of repeatExcursions compensated by 
incursions Lines thus disguised Wave-lines, turned 
over, result in ogee Wave-lines result from woiking 
within narrow upright lines Uprightness of narrow 
repeats counteracted by lines across Diagonal wave- 
lines to connect features forming horizontal band -De- 
signs obviously based upon slanting and horizontal lines 
- Wave-line from side to side of broad repeat Scaffold- 
ing of an old Louis XVI. pattern. 



CONTENTS. xi 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XIII. THE TURN-ROUND ... .162 

Unit of design may be turned part way round Unit of 
6 by 6 inches results in repeat of 12 by 12 inches Works 
either on the straight or as a drop For radiating pattern 
a triangle half the size of smaller square suffices for unit 
Fold and fold again Arab lattice pattern dissected 

XIV. HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN . . .167 
Free patterns planned on formal lines Features recur at 
intervals determined by unit of repeat Planning the 
only way to avoid unforeseen effects Means of disguising 
formal lines Necessity for system Genesis of counter- 
change border of geometric diaper How not to do it- 
Detail not to be determined too soon Genesis of con- 
ventional floral pattern starting with the masses of a 
drop pattern of a pattern starting with line of a floral 
pattern starting with distribution of flowers of a velvet 
pattern starting with severe lines" Inhabited " pattern 
Evolution of Italian arabesque pilaster Animal form 
in pattern Starting at a venture and from an idea- 
Afterthoughts. 

XV TO PROVE A PATTERN .... 208 
The unit of design a repeat Repeat to be tested One 
repeat not enough to show how design works More must 
be indicated Test of roughing out on one plan and work- 
ing out on another Accurate fit essential Proving to be 
done at early stage of design Test of cutting up drawing 
and rearranging the parts. 

XVI. PATTERN PLANNING IN RELATION TO 

TECHNIQUE 213 

Dimensions of design determined by conditions of manu- 
facturePossibilities in block printing Limitations in 
weaving Narrow repeat a condition of the loom 
The " turnover " A space of " single " Borders- 
Table damask The lengthening piece Difficulties 
resulting Conditions affecting colour Change of 
shuttle Its use and danger Carpet weaving 
" Planted " colours Chenille Characteristics of style 
accounted for by technique. 

XVII. PATTERN NOT STRICTLY REPEATING . 241 
Balance of design The decoration of a space or panel 
Mechanical subdivision not the way an artist sets to 
work Measurement by the eye Panelling Composition 
The border Attacking a panel from the outside and 
from inwards Borders inseparable from the filling 
Diaper conforming to the conditions of a' panel Rules 
of composition not to be laid down Delights of daring 
Charm of orderSystematic construction of pattern- 
Artistic anarchy. 



adi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XVIII. EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN . 250 

Full-size drawings -Small scale drawings and their use 
Methods of drawing Charcoal Chalk Roughing out 
Use of blackboard Designing in colour in masses 
Pencil drawing Sponging down Colour designs in 
colour from the first Colour as a help in complicated 
design Form and colour Design only a map of form 
and colour Precaution against self-deception The 
evolution of a design Tracing paper Accident - 
Mechanical helps Hardness Precision essential Body 
colour Water colour Systematic use of mixed tints- 
Working drawing only a means to an end. 

XIX. COLOUR 262 

Close connection between form and colour Effect of 
colour upon design Drawing should show not merely 
effect of colour but its planA map of colour value and 
relation Differences that colour makes Casual colour 
Colour and material Geometric form softened by 
colour, accidental or cunningly planned Confusion 
of form by colour Emphasis of form by colour Change 
of colour in ground. 

XX. THE INVENTION OF PATTERN . . 278 

Imitation and translation Memory and imagination-* 
Old-time content with tradition Modern self-conscious- 
ness Originality Conditions of to-day Inspiration- 
How far nature helps The use of old work The designer 
and his trade The artist and his personality. 

XXI. DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN . 282 
AN ADDITIONAL CHAPTER BY AMOR FENN. 

Sources of nineteenth-century design Augustus Welby 
Pugin and the Gothic revival- Designs for the Houses 
of Parliament Mid- Victorian vogue Owen Jones and 
ancient Western and Oriental art Bruce J. Talbert 
Edwin William Godwin William Moms The Art 
Workers' Guild Walter Crane Lewis F Day C. F. A, 
Voyscy Arts and Crafts Society E. W. Gimson 
Uart nouveau Continental designs W. Lovatelli- 
Colombo, Paris Josef Hoffmann, Vienna Futuristic 
influence Maurice Dufrene Burkhalter Geometric 
motifs Stepanova Modernistic art- Georges Valmier 
Strong colour effects Hermann Huffcrt, 

INDEX TO TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS . . 303 




I. WHAT PATTERN IS. 

Pattern not understood The meaning of the wordComes of repetition, 
and 1S closely connected with manufactureHas always a geometric 
basis Use and necessity of system in design Lines inevitable, and 
must not be left to chance 

To readers of a book upon the subject, no apology for 
pattern is necessary. Modest as may be its pretensions to 
artistic consideration, it covers ground enough to command 
attention. It is here and there and everywhere about us. 
There is too much of it by more than half and more than 
half of it is of such a kind as to make the discriminating wish 
they could do without it altogether. Still, there it is ; and 
there is no escape from it. 

If folk knew a little more about it, realised what was 
and what was not within the control of the designer, under- 
stood how pattern came to be, and something of its scope 
and purpose, as well as of the processes through which a 
design must pass before ever it comes (for their momentary 
delight or lasting annoyance) to be produced, they would be 
less at its mercy. For the difficulty of designing is by no 
means in proportion to the importance of the field of design ; 
and in the case of repeated pattern, with which we have mostly 
to do even those of us who are not concerned with trade or 
manufacture the invention it requires is in inverse ratio to 

A I 



2 PATTERN DESIGN. 

the free scope afforded. It is easier, as William Morris con- 
fessed, to design a big hand-made carpet, in which the artist 
is free to do very much as he likes, than to plan a small 
repeating pattern to the width of Wilton pile or common 
Kidderminster. The art of pattern design consists not in 
spreading yourself over a wide field, but in expressing your- 
self within given bounds. 

The very strictness of such bounds is a challenge to inven- 
tion. In the realm of applied design manufacture is auto- 
crat, and the machine is taskmaster. Let who can rebel 
against their authority. For those who cannot and they are 
the great majority revolt is futile. We are all of us, artists 
no less than the rest of the world, dependent upon manu- 
facture ; and those of the title who stand aloof from it 
give ground for the accusation, commonly brought against 
artists, of being at best unpractical and wrong-headed. 
Their sense of fairness is at fault, too, in blaming manufacture 
because it falls short of art, while they stand by and refuse 
a helping hand to the makers of things which will be made, 
and must be made, and made by machinery too, whether they 
like it or whether they do not. It rests with those who have 
some faculty of design (their name is not legion) to come to 
the aid of manufacture, which, without help from art, is given 
over to the ugliness which they deplore. 

Pattern, it seems plain, and repeated pattern, conforming 
to the conditions of manufacture and even to mechanical 
production, is a consideration of importance, not merely to 
manufacturers and others engaged in industries into which 
art may possibly enter, but to all whose comfort and well- 
being depends in any degree upon the beauty and fitness of 
their surroundings. 

The word " pattern " is here used in a somewhat technical 
sense not, as the dictionary has it, to mean " a specimen M 
nor yet " a shape or model for imitation,*' but ornament and 
especially ornament in repetition. Pattern is, in fact, the 
natural outgrowth of repetition ; and in every case the lines 



WHAT PATTERN IS 3 

of its construction may be traced ; they pronounce them- 
selves, indeed, with geometric precision. Geometric pattern 
grew, of course, out of primitive methods of workmanship. 
No mechanism so simple but it gives rise to it To plait, 
to net, to weave, or in any way mechanically to make, is to 
produce pattern The coarser the work, the more plainly 
is this apparent as, for example, in the mesh of a coarse 
canvas ; but, though refinement of workmanship may be 
carried to the point at which, as in the finest satin or the 
most sumptuous velvet, warp and weft are not perceptible to 
the naked eye, the web is always there, and forms always a 
pattern. The pride of the mechanist is to efface such evidence 
of structure. To the artist it adds an interest ; and, far from 
desiring to obliterate it, he prefers frankly to confess it, and 
to make the best of the texture or pattern which a process 
may give. He regards it as a source of inspiration even, 
which to neglect would seem to him wasteful of artistic 
opportunity. 

It is to his determination to make the best of whatever 
may naturally come of any way of working that we owe 
much of the simplest and most satisfactory, if not absolutely 
the most beautiful, patternwork. 

So infallibly does the repetition of simple units, resulting 
no less from elementary processes of handwork than from 
mechanical production, end in pattern, that, wherever there 
is ordered repetition there it is. Take any form you please 
and repeat it at regular intervals, and, as surely as recurrent 
sounds give rhythm or cadence, whether you want it or not, 
you have pattern. It is so in nature, even in the case of 
forms neither identical nor yet recurring at set intervals. 
The daisies make a pattern on the lawn, the pebbles on the 
path, the dead leaves in the lane ; the branches of the trees 
above, the, naked twigs against the sky, the clouds that 
mottle the blue heavens by day, the stars that diaper their 
depths by night, all make perpetual pattern. The grain of 
wood, the veming of marble, the speckling of granite, fall 



4 PATTERN DESIGN 

so obviously into pattern that they have been accepted in 
place of intelligent design. The surface of the sea is rippled, 
as the sandy shore is ribbed, with wind-woven device, the 
rocks are covered with shellfish clustering into pattern. 
Your footprints, as you walk, make a pattern on the pattern 
of the dewy grass ; your breath upon the window-pane 
crystallises into pattern. 

Technically speaking, however, we understand by pattern 




I PEACH-BLOSSOMS ON THK ICE -JAPANESE 

not merely the recurrence of similar forms, but their recur- 
rence at regular intervals. The Japanese rendering of 
peach-blossoms on the surface of thin ice is undeniably 
ornamental It may be regarded as part of a pattern, but, 
to be complete, it should repeat, which here it docs not. 

It must not be inferred from the casual occurrence of what 
is called pattern that there is anything casual about design : 
the very name denies that it is so. 

The artist's hand does not crawl aimlessly over the paper 
and trail behind it flowers of the imagination. There is 



WHAT PATTERN IS 5 

scope in ornament for all the fancy of a fertile brain ; but 
design is no mere overflow of a brimming imagination ; it 
is cunningly built up on lines necessary to its consistency, 
laboriously, it might be said, were it not that to the artist 
such labour is delight Whoever finds it irksome may be 
sure his bent is not in the direction of applied design. 

The mam lines on which repeated ornament is built are 
so few and simple that they can quite easily be traced. 
Just as the man of science divides the animal world into 
families and classes, so may the man of art classify pattern 
according to its structure. He is able, no less than the 
scientist, to show the affinity between groups of design to 
all first appearances dissimilar, and to lay bare the very 
skeletons upon which all possible pattern is framed. 

The idea of setting out to design a pattern without regard 
to its logical construction is contrary to reason. It is all 
very well to protest that art is free of laws they govern it 
none the less And the pattern designer is bound to reckon 
with the dry bones of design With regard to the unit of 
his design he is free ; he may, if he will, throw taste to the 
winds ; but when the pattern comes to be repeated, the very 
order of its repetition reveals the skeleton ; it was in the cup- 
board all the while. 

This insistence upon the geometric basis of design may 
seem like dogmatism ; and all dogma cuts two ways, irri- 
tating the student into opposition where it does not con- 
vince him ; but experience will prove to him that the 
way to avoid the appearance of formality is not to set to 
work at haphazard. Suppose one were to begin without 
any thought of formal distribution and to design, let us say, 
a scroll, in itself as graceful as might be A series of such 
scrolls, side by side, would show lines not in the least con- 
templated by the draughtsman, and in all probability as 
inelegant as they were unexpected. Who has not suffered m 
his time from wallpaper or other patterns in which certain 
ill-defined but awkward stripes would thrust themselves 



6 PATTERN DESIGN 

upon his attention ? And to the designer himself one of 
his strangest experiences is the trick a seemingly quite 
innocent pattern will play upon him in repetition. A 
design, for example, which appears to be quite evenly dis- 
tributed will run, when hung, into lines which slant in such 
a way as to give the impression that the walls are not true, 
or that the paper has been hung askew. 

In a pattern in which patches of the ground are left bare, 
the gaps are by no means accidental. They are most 




2. PREDETERMINED GAPS IN A PATTERN. 

deliberately planned and from the very beginning or there 
is no knowing what havoc they might play in repetition. 

Amateurs will tell you (and a painter is an amateur when 
first he tries his hand at pattern) that the lines which arc 
so distressing in incompetent pattern are the result of 
mathematical planning. That is not merely false, but, as 
every practical designer knows, the very opposite of the 
truth. There is no more radical mistake than to suppose 
that the awkward stripes which come out for the first time 
when a pattern is repeated are the result of the designer's 
having worked upon the obtrusive lines : they are the natural 



WHAT PATTERN IS 




3. BALANCE OF ORNAMENT ENOUGH FOR A PANEL BUT NOT FOR A 
REPEATING PATTERN 



8 PATTERN DESIGN 

and inevitable result of not working upon any lines at all. 
If you work without a system the only safety is m insignifi- 
cance. A pattern may be comparatively featureless , and, so 
long as there is in it no feature pronounced enough to dis- 
tinguish itself, lack of order may perhaps pass unnoticed. 
But it is hardly worth while going out of the way to secure an 
end so insignificant 

A design of any character has usually in it features which, 
when it is repeated, stand prominently out from the rest. 
To these the eye is irresistibly drawn ; and, not merely so, 
but the lines they take in relation one to another insist on 
being seen. It is barely possible that, in the event of such 
lines not having been taken into consideration by the 
designer, they should fall together in the happiest con- 
ceivable way. More likely they will look awry. 

The balance which in a single composition satisfies the 
eye is not enough when it comes to repetition The shoulders 
of the mantling, for example, on page 7, one rising above the 
lion's back, the other falling below it, would in repeated 
scrollwork almost certainly give the impression of being 
out of the level. The only way to be sure that any 
detail will balance is to begin by arranging it quite 
symmetrically. This will ensure reciprocal occupation, 
and any alteration can be made within the boundary lines 
to the extent even of disguising the foundation on which it 
is done. 

The designer of experience runs no unnecessary risk. 
Accepting some sort of geometric plan as the basis of his 
design, and appreciating at their worth the severity and 
strength resulting from it, and the sense of scale it gives, he 
makes sure of lines deliberately fulfilling the purposes of 
decoration. He will counteract a tendency to stripes in one 
direction by features which direct attention othcrwards ; he 
will so clothe a doubtful line that there shall be no fear of its 
asserting itself, as m its nakedness it might The lines he 
leaves in his design were chosen for their strength and 



WHAT PATTERN IS. 9 

steadiness. Such lines as reveal themselves are the lines 
upon which it was built, by no means unforeseen. 

If lines left to chance reveal themselves, as they are apt 
to do, in sequence not to be endured, what else was to be 
expected > Only by a miracle could they happen to fall 
precisely as art would have them. The best of players 
makes sometimes a happy fluke in design ; but he does not 
reckon upon such luck 

The point is this : it is, practically speaking, inevitable 
that lines shall in the end assert themselves in repeated 
pattern , if the artist does not arrange for them in his 
design, they fall as may happen , it is therefore the merest 
precaution of common-sense on his part to lay them down 
from the beginning, to make them the framework upon which 
his pattern is built, the skeleton of his design 

A practical designer has not, as a rule, much difficulty 
in tracing the bones of a design, amply as they may be 
wrapped in foliation or other disguising detail. To lay them 
bare enough, however, to demonstrate the anatomy of pattern 
recourse must be had to dissection. 



II. THE SQUARE. 

Geometry the basis of all pattern Breaks in the simple stripe give 
cross-lines Hence the lattice and the chequer, on which a vast variety 
of pattern is built 

IT will be as well, before proceeding to dissect design 
apparently far removed from the geometric, to show the lines 
which of themselves make pattern. They prove to be the 
basis of all pattern. 

The simplest of all patterns is the stripe a scries of 
parallel lines in one direction. But the limits of the mere 
stripe are soon reached ; for any break in the repeated line or 
any deviation from the straight gives, by its regular recur- 
rence, other lines in the cross direction. Gaps in a series of 
broken horizontal lines (4) give vertical lines ; and in the 
same way the points of the zig-zags mark the upright (5). 
Any recurrent feature between the lines gives, again, lines 



yAVAVAVAVAX 





\VAVAVAVAVA 



STRIPE BREAKS GIVE CROSS- 5. ZIO-ZAG- POINTS CIVF, CROSS- 

LINES. 

10 



THE SQUARE 



n 



6 STRIPES ORNAMENT GIVES 
SLANTING LINES 



5) 5 3> 


^ 


5> 


3> 


5> 


3> 


3 


5> 


3> 


3> 



7 STRIPES ORNAMENT GIVES 
UPRIGHT LINES. 



across, slanting or at right angles to them, as the case may be 
(6 and 7). We arrive in effect, as the primitive basket weaver 
must have arrived in fact, at cross-lines ; and upon these a 
vast amount of varied pattern is built up, the simplest forms 
of which are the lattice and the chequer (8). They must also 
have been the earliest evolved by the basket plaiter. Grasses 
all of one colour naturally showed the lines of interweaving, 
the lattice (9). Grasses alternately light and dark in colour 
asserted their chequered masses of colour, and gave the chess- 
board pattern. Strips of different colours led also to more 
intricate pattern (10) , and the width of the coloured strips 
had only to be varied to give all manner of plaids and 
tartans. 

Something of the variety of pattern resulting from the 



8. SQUARE LATTICE CHEQUER. 



9. INTERLACING. 



12 



PATTERN DESIGN 




10 INTERLACING STRIPS OF DIFFERENT COLOUR 

closer or looser plaiting of equal strips is indicated below -as 
well as the further variety which comes of strips of unequal 
width (11 to 14). 

On the regular network of cross-lines a vast number of 
patterns not necessarily regular may be built up, many of 
them suggestive of plaiting, if not actually suggested by it. 

Taken singly, and filled in alternately light and dark, the 
squares give only the chess-board pattern ; taken in groups 
of two, or alternately of two and one (15), they begin to 
show possibilities in the way of upright or diagonal patterns. 




II CLOSE PLAITING 




LOOSER PLAITING. 



THE SQUARE. 




13. OPEN PLAITING 



14. PLAITED STRIPS OF DIFFERENT 
WIDTH 



Grouped in threes or fives (16) they give already independent 
units of design. The unit of the Arab diaper (17) is clearly 
a group of eight squares. 

Working upon the lines of the lattice, we arrive, without 
in any way departing from them, but simply by intermitting 
some of them, at something in the nature of a key or fret 
pattern (18) The elaborate Japanese fret on page 16 is 
built upon that plan, upon which it will be seen (same page) 
all manner of interlacing and free diapers may be schemed. 

There are two ways of setting about design of this sort, 
both of which amount practically to the same thing. The 



15. DIAPERS OF SQUARES AND CROUPS OF SQUARES 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




16. GROUPS OF THREE SQUARES GROUPS OF FIVE SQUARES 

one is to rule square lines and rub out parts of them, the other 
is to work with a pen or a brush upon faintly ruled paper an 
exercise childish enough for the kindergarten, but by no 
means to be despised by the artist whose soul is not above 
pattern. It is wonderful what a vast and varied range of 
pattern is to be built upon the simple scaffolding of square 
lines. 

The chess-board has only to be turned partly round to 
give us diamonds but as they are still square, and it is only 




17. THE UNIT OF REPEAT A GROUP OF EIGHT SQUARES, 



THE SQUARE 




FRET PATTERN ON THE LINES OF SQUARE LATTICE. 



he point of view that is altered, we have as yet (as in the 
:ase of a diagonal stripe, which is still only a stripe) no 
different plan, but only a difference of effect so great, 
lowever, as to be worth noting, and of quite exceptional 
importance when it comes to the construction of freer 
pattern. 

. By altering the angle at which lines cross, we get at once 
not only a series of new shapes (19 to 21 ) but a variety of the 
diamond which for clearness' sake it will be convenient to 
distinguish as the diamond not in itself so satisfactory a 
form as the square, but invaluable in connection with cross- 
lines in a third direction. 

The plan of the rectangular lattice is, however, as a matter 
of fact, the basis of the great part of our pattern design. 




19. DIAMOND DIAPER. 



20 ZIG-ZAG BUILT ON 
DIAMOND LINES 



21. DIAMOND DIAPER. 



PATTERN DESIGN 




33 FRETS, ETC., 'ON LINES OF SQUARE LATTICE. 



THE SQUARE 17 

There arc obvious advantages in the use, for example, of 
square tiles and right-sided blocks for printing and so forth ; 
but, over and above convenience, it seems to come more 
naturally to us to think out a design on square lines than 
on any other 




23. DESIGN FOR PRINTED COTTON 
BASED ON SQUARES 



III. THE TRIANGLE. 



The square lattice crossed by diagonal lines gives the triangle -Hence 
the diamond And out of that the hexagon, the star, and other geometric 
units familiar in Arab diaper 

THE introduction of a third series of cross-lines makes quite a 
new and most significant departure. Cross a square lattice by 
a series of diagonal lines bisecting the right angles, cutting 
the squares in half that is to say, and the halves give us a 
new form to work upon the triangle (24). And so it is if we 
cross in the same way a lattice of elongated diamond shape. 
But if we start with a lattice of a certain proportion ; if, that 
is to say, the two sharp angles of the diamonds are together 
equal to one of the blunter angles, then, when they are 
bisected by a third series, the halves of the diamond prove to 
be equilateral triangles. That being so, or, to put it another 





24. TRIANGLE. 



EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE. 
18 



DIAMOND. 



THE TRIANGLE. 




25 DIAPKR BUILT ON TRIANGULAR PLAN. 

iy, our diamond being composed of equilateral triangles, 
w possibilities of design appear upon the horizon. 
The equilateral triangle is the basis of an infinity of 
ometric pattern. The Arabs (or the Byzantine Greeks re- 
onsiblc for their art) made infinite use of it, building up 
dr intricate patterns upon it (25) as Western nations built 
KW the square. From the triangle they derive not only the 
amond, which is composed of two triangles, but other in- 
nious combinations, such as the unit of the diaper above 
lich is composed of seven triangles or of a central triangle 
cl three diamonds radiating from it Six triangles form a 
xagon (26), and six other triangles ranged round that 
tult in a star. 




D1APKRS BUJLT ON TRIANGLES. HEXAGON** SIX TRIANGLES. 



20 



PATTERN DESIGN 




27 DIAPERb BUILT UP OF 

The hexagon itself is a unit which makes a perfect 
repeat. The stars may be so arranged, point to point, as 
to leave only hexagonal intervals between In the diaper 
on page 19 the central hexagons round which the stars are 
built range with the hexagonal intervals. The result is a 










28. INDIAN LATTICE AND THE LINKS ON WHICH IT IS IH'iI,T. 



THE TRI \NCiLE 







29. INDIAN LATTICE AND ITS TRIANGULAR BASIS 

starry pattern, composed of hexagons and triangles, in 
which the cross-lines in the three directions are very plainly 
marked. 

Three hexagons together give a figure (27), commonly 
employed in Arab ornament, which repeats (it will be seen) 
either as a close-fitting diaper or with hexagonal intervals 
between. The figure itself is plainly related to the triangle 
the side of which might easily be bent into zig-zags giving 
the other nine angles which go to make it. 

The friendly way in which triangles, hexagons, stars, and 
other shapes compounded of the triangle unite to give com- 
plex and ingenious variety of pattern accounts for the per- 
sistent use of such units in Byzantine floor patterns and 
Moresque tile-work. It will be seen that the intricate Indian 
window lattices illustrated (28, 29, 30) resolve themselves 



32 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




30. INDIAN LATTICE A.ND ITS TRIANGULAR BASIS. 

(apart from the rosettes or stars inhabiting the central 
hexagons) into shapes either formed by lines crossing in 
the three directions or built up of equilateral triangles, in 
the ways already explained. 



P ; ! n .! : p a .B. 
U-Divq; -jzC" jzf' jg 



: ; |q 

I : P 1 1 P j.-JZ(" 

L1^ ! id lib' 'Q eV '0 

31. OCTAGON AND THE LINES ON WHICH IT IS BUILT 




IV. THE OCTAGON. 

Four series of lines give the octagon Not the unit of a complete pattern, 
but the basis of some radiating patterns More complicated cross-lines, 
giving sixteen and eighteen sided figures, result in more elaborate 
pattern, but involve no new principle Pentagon pattern really built on 
simple trellis lines, 

A FOURTH series of cross-lines naturally gives new shapes, 
but no longer shapes which of themselves form a compact 
repeating pattern (31). The little squares at A are plainly 
formed on the trellis shown in dotted line. Cross that with 
a wider trellis, B, and you get the octagons, C. But, pro- 
portion them as you will, there remains always a series of 
square or oblong or diamond-shaped gaps between ; and the 
two forms are together necessary to make a coherent pattern. 
The two octagon diapers (32) are of course identically the 
same, presented only from different points of view. 

The lines of a double trellis, one crossing the other, can- 
not therefore be said to give a new geometric pattern unit ; 
but they give new lines on which a vast number of radiating 
patterns are built, from the comparatively plain interlacing 
of a cane-bottomed chair (33) to the ornamental diapering 
on the lower walls of the Alhambra (34). It is upon lines 

23 



PATTERN DESIGN 





32 DIFFERENT VIEWS OF SAME PVTTERX 

such as these that the bewildering patterns in which a race of 
mathematicians delighted are based. We are inclined to 
wonder sometimes how human ingenuity comes to grasp the 
thread of such intricate patternwork, much less invent it. 
Something of the wonder ceases when the tangled lines of 
its construction are unravelled. 

The double lattice which gives the eight pointed figures 
in diagram 34 might be crossed by a similar lattice giving 
sixteen pointed figures, and that again by itself, giving 
figures of twice as many points, without the introduction of 
any new principle of design. The lines would merely be 
elaborated ; they would resolve themselves into cross-lines 




33. MTTKUV FROM C'ANK-BOTTOMKU CHAW. 



TIIR OCT'\(,ON 




34 TIJLK WORK FROM THE ALHAMRRA 

not in four or eight, but in sixteen or thirty-two directions 
that is all. 

Practically, we have now exhausted the plans on which 
straight-lined patterns can be schemed. It is within the 
bounds of ingenuity to put together nght-lmed figures, such 
as the pentagon, in a way to mystify even the expert and to 
suggest a new discovery in pattern planning. Such a pattern 
is the cunningly counterchanged pentagon diaper (36). 
The star shapes within the larger pentagons and the smaller 
stars between, with their pentagonal centres suggesting other 



26 



PATTERN DESIGN 




35. SIMPLE AND MORE COMPLICATED TRKU.IS LINKS, 

pentagonal shapes (in point of fact not complete), confuse 
the lines on which the pattern is really built. But, artfully as 
they are disguised, they prove to be familiar lines involving 
no new plan. The pattern might be built indeed upon five 
series of lines in the direction of the five sides of the pentagon ; 
but a network of such lines would be involved to a quite 
perplexing degree. The lines indicated on the diagram are 
more likely those on which the artist worked ; and they are 
intimately related, as will be seen, to the simple trellis of 
cross-lines above. 




36 PKVTAOON DJAPKR 
SKM.KTOS'. 



AND 




37* ZIG-ZAGS DFVEI OPING INTO WAVE LINES. 



V. THE CIRCLE. 



Th circle gives no new plan but only cuivilinear versions of the foregoing 
The wave a rounded zig-zag The honeycomb compressed circles 
ScjjmenlH of circles give scale pattern, a curvilinear variation upon 
diamond The ogee The circle itself a scaffolding for design. 

A MOST important element in geometric pattern is the circle : 
with it curvilinear design begins at once to flow more freely. 

Hut (as in the case of the pentagon) the circle gives us no 
now plan to work on ; it must itself be planned upon one or 
othec^of the systems already described ; it must be struck, 
that J to say, from centres corresponding to the points of 
intersection given by a lattice of straight lines. 

Cifirvilinear pattern is in its simplest form plainly only a 
suaver variety of rectilinear design. Flowing patterns can 
often**be deduced from angular, and vice versa. The priority 
of cither is open to dispute, but hardly worth disputing. 

Lopg before geometric principles were formulated in the 
mind/of man, he practised them intuitively. As to the use of 
the circle in ornament, we need not ascribe it to geometry, 
nor trace it back to the sun's disc and symbolism, nor yet to 

27 



PATTERN DESIGN 




38 RELATION OF OCTAGON TO CIRCLE DIAPRR. 

conscious imitation. The primeval artist had but to pick up 
the nearest dry twig and indent the damp earth with it, and 
lo 1 a diaper of circular forms. Or, again, he might begin to 
scratch zig-zags, and, as his hand flowed on, they might 
develop into waved lines (37). Wave or zig-zag linos fall 
naturally into stripes . it is not the plan of the pattern, but 
only the detail that differs The wave is in fact a zig-zag 
blunted at the points, the zig-zag an angular form of 
wave. A network of straight staves gives, as seen in slight 




STRATGHT-UNKfl AND CURVILINEAR VARIRTIKS OF THE 
SAME PATTERN. 



THE CIRCLE 





40 DIAPER OK CIRCLES PLANNED 
ON SQUARE LINKS 



DIAPER OF ( IRCLKb PLANNED 
ON DIAMOND LINES 



perspective (look at any common hurdle), distinctly wav- 
ing lines. 

Again, round off the corners of the hexagon or octagon, 
,antl you have straightway a circle (38) Indeed, at a little 
distance, the lines of a sixteen-sided figure round themselves, 
to all appearance, and give the effect of a circle The reduc- 
tion of the circle to hexagonal shape is practically effected 
in the honeycomb. The busy bee, if one may so far throw 




42, PLANNtil) ON LINKS OK 40, BUT 
RADIUS RELATIVELY WIDER, 



43. PLANNED ON LINES OF 41, BUT 
RADIUS RELATIVELY WIDER 



PATTERN DESIGN 




44. PLANNED ON LINKS OF 41, BUT RADIUS RELATIXELY WIPKR. 

doubt upon his proverbial forethought, works blindly in a 
circle, and the shape of his cells is simply the result of 
gravitation. Cylinders crowded together crush themselves 
into hexagonal prisms. There is not a question of design : it 
is a matter of plasticity and weight 




45. DOUBLE DIAPKR OF CIRCLES PLANNED ON LINKS OF 40, BCT 
RADIUS RELATIVELY WIDER STILL. 



THE CIRCLE 




46 DIAPER OF INTERLACING CIRCLES 

It is clear on the face of it that we have in illustration (39) 
not so much two patterns as straight-lined and curved 
varieties of the same thing. 

Circles closely packed to form a diaper show by the shape 
of the interspaces the plan on which they are put together. 




47, WAl'KR OF CIRCLES INTERLACING WITH SQUARE TREtLIS. 



PATTERN DESIGN 




48 DIAPKR OF S('\LKS AND DKRIVATIVKS FROM IT. 

Arranged on the square (40; they show between them a four- 
sided space, on a diamond (41) a three-sided. 

Larger circles struck from the same points, or circles of 
the same size struck from similarly arranged hut closer 
points give, it will be seen (42, 43, 44, 45), more intricate- 
looking diapers. And infinite variations may be played 
upon the same tunes. The dotted lines m the diagrams 
fully explain the construction of the patterns, and show 
that no new principle is involved in the planning of them. 

In the pattern (46) on page 31, the larger circles arc* 



THE CIRCLE. 



33 




49. SCALES TURNED ABOUT TO MAKE FLOWING DIAPER. 

struck from the points given by equi-distant lines crossing 
at' right angles, and the smaller circles from points midway 
on the lines between these. The combination of straight 
with curved lines (47) helps only to show more plainly than 
ever the scaffolding on which the pattern was built. Other 
lines (square always) on which it migh/t have been con- 
structed are indicated by dotted lines. 

As with the circle, so with its segments and its compounds 
(the trefoil, quatrefoil, and so forth) ; they give new formsj 
to be arranged always on the old plans the quatrefoil 
naturally upon square lines, the trefoil or sexfoil upon the 
lines of the triangle. The segments of the circle give us the 
scale pattern (48), derived it might be from the scales of a 
fish or from the plumage of a bird's neck, but, practically 
speaking, only a translation of the diamond into curved 
lines. 

Regarding the scales only as curvilinear diamonds, we are 
free to turn them about, as neither scales nor feathers would 
naturally grow, and to produce a flowing diaper (49) in which 



34 



PATTERN DESIGN 




50. SHOWING RELATION OF SCALE TO DIAMOND AND OOKF, AND 
OF OttMC TO DIAMOND AND HKXAOON', 




51. WAVE LINKS, OGEE THAPKR, AND INfTKRI ,\< INTC CKttKS, 
GIVING HEXAGONAL SHAPKS. 



THE CIRCLE 



35 




$2. GOTHIC TRACERY DIAPERS CONSTRUCTED ON CIRCULAR LINES. 

occurs a form, compounded of four scales, which itself may be 
regarded as a version either of the diamond or of the hexagon. 
All this is more plainly shown in diagram 50. The flowing 
shape occurs again in yet another diagram (51) together 
with the waved lines out of which it is composed. The inter- 
lacing of these waved lines gives a six-sided figure, the; lines 




53. GOTHIC TRACKRY DIAPKR AND ITS CONSTRUCTIONAL LINES. 



PATTERN DESIGN 



of which only want straightening to be recognised at once 
as the familiar hexagon It is not surprising that in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries pattern commonly took the 
graceful lines of the ogee. The designer fell into them as 
naturally as Mr Wegg dropped into poetry. 













54, GOTHIC TR\CKRY AND ITS CONSTRUCTIONS, LINKS, 

The circle deserves further to be considered because it 
is itself the scaffolding, or at all events forms purl of the 
scaffolding, upon which a great number of more or less 
geometric patterns have been devised. 

The simple Gothic diaper (52; to the left on page 35 



VII. BORDERS. 

What a bordei is - Includes frieze, pilaster, frame, &c Simplicity 
Slioit interval of repeat Flowing and broken borders Mere lines 
4 * Stop " 1 >orders~ -Frets E volute Zig-zag Chevron Undulate Guil- 
loelie Interlacing Cham- Strap Branching lines Spiral scroll 
Comiterclwngo -Intermittent borders Block border Panel border 
The S scroll Natural growth Enclosed borders Fringes, &c 
Strong and weak side of border Duection of border Corners and their 
influence upon design Circular and concentric borders 

A BORDER may be described as confined always within fixed 
marginal (usually parallel) lines which, whether expressed 
or understood, determine its depth or breadth, The pattern 
of it is repeated lengthwise only. 

This would seem to simplify the problem of design by 
just one half. But it is not so. There are considerations, 
such as the necessity of turning a corner, which make the 
task by no means so straightforward. And, then, the com- 
parative narrowness within which borders are confined, 
and the very simplicity of the lines into which they naturally 
fall, make it difficult to invent anything new. It seems almost 
as if everything that was worth doing had been done already 
and nothing remained to us but to echo it. 

These very circumstances, however, enable me to give 
something more than the geometric ground plans of border 
design, and, in fact, to survey the various steps of border 
which have been built upon them. 

The term border is fairly comprehensive. It may be 
taken to include frieze, pilaster, and framing patterns 

53 



54 



PATTERN DESIGN. 








9 



76. DIAGRAMS OF FLOWING AND BROKKN BORDERS. 

genet ally. Some of these are of individual importance, and 
may rightly claim prominence in a scheme of decoration; they 
are, if not precisely the picture, interesting incidents in it, A 
border in the narrower sense is, however, as a rule, at best a 
frame, and steps out of its place when it attracts much notice 
to itself. The simpler it is the better. It is just the simplest 
borders which are most difficult to design. The mere ad- 
justment of parallel lines to the framing of a drawing wants 
tact and taste. u You can always tell a designer by his 
borders," said an artist to me once, himself distinguished in 
design. 

With regard to the actual planning or setting out of 
border patterns there is not much to be added to what has 
already been explained in reference to the construction of 
repeated pattern generally* In so far as merely geometric 
recurrence is concerned the problem is simplified reduced f 
as before said, to a pattern which repeats lengthwise only* 
Borders, therefore, simple or elaborate, are built on linen 
already described; and here again the tendency of those 
lines will he to reveal themselves in the recurring pattern. 

The direction of a border horizontal or upright > whether 
it frames a panel or runs round a circle -is a question rather 
of detail than of planning. Still, to some extent it affects the 
plan of the design ; for, though potentially the same lines will 
serve in any case, practically they will not ; for the position 



BORDERS 



55 



of the border will determine always which of the possible 
lines are appropriate. 

Conditions applying to borders generally are : that they 
should be simple, that they should repeat at no very long 
interval, that they should lend themselves to satisfactory 
management in turning a corner. A short interval of repeat 
has, over and above the economy obviously effected by its 
moans, two clear advantages : it steadies the effect, and it 
facilitates the adaptation of the unit of repeat to two or more 
lengths -a necessity, continually occurring, which in itself 
complicates the scheming of border design. 

There are, broadly speaking, two descriptions of borders, 
those in which the lines run with the margins, and those in 
which they cros* from one to the other (76) These two 
systems may be, and often are, combined. The flowing 
border may be bridged at intervals ; the lines between the 
steady features in a broken pattern may run on ; but, practi- 
cally, it is usually the business of a border either to flow 
smoothly or to stand steady; and the first thing the 
designer has to do is to make up his mind which of these it 
shall do. 

If any classification of borders is possible, it is into flow- 
ing, growing, waving, " fret," spiral and other continuous 
borders, and into " stop," " block," " turnover," panel and 
other crossways or broken borders, upgrowing as it were from 
the margin* It is no use attempting to group them as leaf, 
rosette, " honeysuckle " borders and so forth, according to 



77. GKEEK FRET BORDER 




PATTERN DESIGN 




(IBM 



B 



IIBIIIIIBIIMU 



III III IIIIIIIIIIIMI 



D 




raiiriiiTii 



innnnnrinjTJi 



H 



A, HAIN BAND , C, 1), BAND BKOKKN Y < KOhS J INKb, 

*, PAINIbl) IWrAlI ON MUMMY CAM',, HiYMIAN. 

P 1 , O, PAINTH) Utt I AIL ON MUMMY ( ASK, W.YP1IAN ! I ARl V f> XAMPI UH t*K KKfcT tAl !KR,\>, 

H, blMPIJ-.ST M)RM OK t ONHNUOUfc f-HI'.T UOKtJKKS. 



BORDERS 57 

their detail . there is no logical end to such description. 
Besides, detail affects construction only in so far as there 
must naturally be consistency between the two. And here 
perhaps a word of warning may not be amiss. Though 
certain forms of detail happen commonly to have been found 
in association with certain lines of construction, that fact, 
while it may serve as a sign-post or a danger-signal to 
designers new to the road, should not be regarded as in any 
way a barrier against possible new departures in invention. 

Of all conceivable borders the simplest is a line or band 
(78 A). Next to that comes a series of lines ; and here begins 
designif it did not begin, before that, with the determina- 
tion of the thickness of the single line To apportion the 
width of parallel lines and their distance apart is already an 
effort of artistic judgment, as will be at once admitted if 
we take those lines to represent the light and shadow given 
by a series of mouldings. 

The elementary form of broken border is where cross 
lines occur at intervals (upright in a horizontal border) as 
in 78 B, c, and D, in which varied spacmgs are shown. 

Groups of cross lines or any simple spot, patera or other 
pattern at regular intervals give what is conveniently 
described as a "stop " border. The Egyptian border (78 E) 
is an example. 

From the equally spaced straight line pattern (78 D) it is 
but the shortest of steps to the running border (78 H) 
which brings us to the continuous group, of which the fret, 
simple or elaborate, may be regarded as the full develop- 
ment. The fret is too important a form of border to be passed 
over. Whether it is to be regarded as an angular and recti- 
linear form of the symbolic wave, or as a pattern begotten 
of the mechanism of basket plaiting, and how it happens to 
be found among Chinese and Mexicans, among Greeks and 
Fiji islanders it is not here the place to inquire. But the 
degree of refinement to which it was carried by the Greeks 
makes it impossible to overlook it. 



PATTERN DESIGN 



rHJHJEJEJHIEJHJZJEJHTi 



B 





D 




E 



79- 



A, PRLT BORUhRS, hARLY C.RKI-K VASh PAINHNU*. 

B, t , JRfcT BORDERS, ORHBK VAfefc TAINTING, 

, frRlvr HORUhR <,RttKK VASK PAINTXNCS, RKtri,T OF 1WO INTl-KbM IIHU UAKt>, 
It, 1-RfcT BOKDHR, C.RHKK VAWi rAINTlNOb, DOUBl,*, VttRWtON OK W. 



BORDERS 59 

The earlier frets consisted of a continuous line or band, 
but later became more involved. Two bands are employed 
in 79 D which cross, resulting in the Swastika form ; the 
following design (79 E) is further complicated in being a 
double version of 79 D. Another example is 80 G. 

It is mere futility, of course, to copy the Greek fret and 
think you are designing, but it remains a " motif " which 
the ornamentist cannot afford to leave out of account. The 
fret has qualities of balance, flatness and simplicity, of 
monotonous rhythm, of reticent yet sufficient strength, 
which make for many purposes a quite perfect border. It 
says something for it that the Greeks thought it worthy of 
so much attention,' and, having perfected it, were content 
to go no further. 

It is seen to most advantage in its comparatively simple 
forms, and when it flows in one direction. It is less happy 
when it faces both ways (80 A and B), or is broken or dis- 
jointed (79 A). It is unhappier still when oblique (81 E 
and F). The masonry patterns (81 C and D) from Mitla, 
in Mexico, are very interesting, but have no claim to Greek 
perfection. 

Should the fret include a " stop " of any kind, it is 
better that this feature should take the square lines uniform 
with the fret (80 C, D, E, F, G). Elaborate frets in two or 
three tiers or stories, such as the one framing the central 
patch or panel in the Roman mosaic on page 247 (250) 
have their place, perhaps, but it is quite an exceptional one, 

A form of broken fret is shown (80 D). It will be seen 
that the black lines, which are painted, are not continuous ; 
but in effect the fret is not broken, as the white ground gives 
the united lines of the pattern. This was often done by the 
Greek vase painters, who deliberately at times painted in 
the ground spaces, leaving the ornament the colour of the 
vase. 

Oriental frets differ from the Greek in that they are not, 
as a rule, continuous : see Chinese example (81 G). 



6o 



PATTERN DESIGN 



zsaszszs JisuasyiiMi 



B 





D 







rajprtu a pj a rnJ H nu a rnJ a pis 



G 

80. PAINTKD FRKTS FROM CjRKKK VASKS, 

A, CONTINUOUS frRlv'IS FAC1N< BOTH WAYS. 

t, FRKf WITH S'lOPh, KKCIPHOCAI. AKRANC.FMI.NT, 

h, F, O, fRK'Ib WITH STOPS, 10NIIMUOUS IN 



BORDERS 



61 




B 





D 





81. 



A, PAINTWD FRPT, ANCIENT MEXICO, 

B, SCULP ruRicn FRKT, ANCIRNT MKXICO, 

C-, D, FRhtS FORMKD BY MASONRY, ANCIBNT MEXICO. 
K, F, PAINTRB FRRTb, ARABIAN, 
G, CHINESE FRET. 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




B 





D 





H I 

82, THTC WAVE OR KVOI.UTK SPIRAL, 

A, B, f.HKKK. (, ARCHAIC ttRfcPK* I*AINrPD. 

I), ( YPRUS, 8V) ,C 

K, MONK <AHVlNf., TRFAUHV OF ATRKUH, MVCXK>, 
!>, MfrTAI INT.AY, AN(;i O-SAXON. 
<, PAINTIl> DKrAIL AN< IfrNT MKX1CO. 
H, t ARVM) nfCTAlt, AN< IfKT MEXICO. 
I, feAVACVK ART, NKW OU1NUA, 



BORDERS 








K 

83 THE ZIG-ZAG OR CHEVRON 



A, ft, r, D, H, EGYPTIAN MUMMY CASES 
fc t COHTINtTOlTS FOLDING RIBBON 
F, PAINTED DETAIL, SAVAGE ART 



G, CONTINUOUS BORDER 
I, ZIG-ZAG FOLIATED SI EM. 
K, ZIG-ZAG FOLIATED STEM, GREEK, 



PATTERN DESIGN. 





B 





D 





84. THE UNDri.ATK OR WAVKt) 



A, PAINTED nrvTAfr , 

r, PAINTt'tJ DKIAU , <,Rl<f-K. 

R, OOTHtC ( AMVINCi* 



II, W(tVI-N MA (f HIM. 



BORDERS. 




B 





D 




85 INTERLACING OR PLAITED UNDULATES. 

A TWO flANDb OR PLAITS. B, 1HRKR BANDS OR PI AI TS 

I ' hlX BANOB OR riAllh n t FOLIAThD INTPRLACFMfcNT, TWO STBMS. 

* K, RIBBON KOKMKD OF TWO UNDULATES, ROMAN MOSAIC. 



66 



PATTERN DESIGN, 




D 






80, TUB GUUXX'HK, 

A, l> hlNOIJt, <fUHt( HI'S. , AS^VKIAN. M, Hi NAt'MAS I 

li, K t DOUR1L (.I'll I OC HI'S, <,KM K, f,, lV/ANtlN|, MUM-, 

H, BYZAN1JNK INTLWAtU) UUKIU'W, hlOJfl. ( ANMNt,. 



BORDERS 67 

It is as a painted pattern that the fret is most satisfactory. 
In carving, one sfet of lines, the vertical or the horizontal 
as the light may determine, are emphasised by strong shadows 
in such a way as to distort the design 

Some artistic prejudice against these right lined borders 
is due to the mechanical way m which they have been drawn 
- but never by the Greeks. They sketched them always 
with a delightfully free handa very different thing from 
a careless or incompetent one, 

A fret pattern is most easily planned on a trellis of vertical 
and horizontal lines, which really form the square basis of 
its construction 

The fret may be regarded as the rectangular form of the 
overturn wave pattern, or evolute spiral (94 A). The evolute 
is also known as the " Vitruvian scroll," and, as in the case 
of the fret, appears in many phases of classic and savage 
art, as illustrated on page (62). 

The zig-zag, or chevron, is the straight line form of the 
simple wave-line, or undulate Illustrations on page 63 
(83) show examples from various sources. 

The waved or undulate line, which forms the basis of 
most scroll ornament, is obviously a softened form of the 
xitf-zag, and, like the fret and the evolute, its employment 
has been universal. For various renderings see 84. The 
undulate is usually reinforced by other detail and seldom 
appears by itself, the effect being somewhat thin and open. 
Where two or more lines or bands are employed, they arc 
more satisfactory. Reference to Byzantine and Celtic 
examples will show how interesting interlacement can be 
(85 ami 86). 

The interlaced form known as the guilloche is generally 
based on circles, and appears in Chaldaean and Greek art. 
It is essentially geometric in construction (86). 

Instances of less obvious geometric interlacing occur in 
Ohio ornament (87), delightfully intricate at times, but, 
however mysterious, coherent always, to be traced by any- 



68 



PATTERN DESIGN. 






87. INTERLACED BORDKRS CKLTIC 1 . 

one who has the patience, throughout their convolutions. 
In Anglo-Saxon or Ohio ornament, and its Byzantine 
original, arc to be found a variety of interlacing borders, 
in which there are not merely continuous hands that arc 
interlaced, but, as it were, independent links, forming 
chains of ornament rather than plaits (86-87). 

A simple chain pattern makes rather a poor border : it is 
weak at the edges -just where it should be strong. Orna- 
mental links, however, can be made* to keep in a line* with 
the margins; and they are if not so interesting as the 
more flowing interlacings steadier, which is sometimes &n 



BORDERS 



69 




FROM CHEVRON TO WAVE. 



advantage. Generally speaking, the most pleasing inter- 
lacing patterns are those in which the lines are rounded ; 
but straight-lined and angular straps may be quite happily 
associated. 

Merely angular and straight-lined interlacings compare 
disadvantageously with the fret. 

The waving strap (88) may be evolved from the zig-zag 
or from the wave. 

A strap bent alternately in the vertical and horizontal 
direction (89) brings us, by the softening of the lines of the 
turnover, at all events in the direction of the wave. 

There soon comes a point in the design of the wave-pattern 
at which further development can only take place in one 
direction, namely, in the way of branching. That is how 
the spiral scroll occurs. The spirals may be regarded as so 
many branches 'from the parent wave stem. In 90 B is in- 
dicated how the undulate line that forms the main stem is 
determined by adjacent circles In fact this really happens. 
The Indian metal-worker has no drawn design to follow 
he works on a local tradition and in this instance the 
method was to strike or scribe a series of circles, and then 
to go direct to work with his tools, forming flowers or other 




89. BENT STRAP TRANSITION FROM RECTANGULAR TO WAVE FORMS 



PATTERN DESIGN 






D 





90. THE SCROLL BORDER. 

A, THK TTNDULATB I INK WITH SPIRAL BRANCHING. ITALIAN Kf.NAlHSANl I.. 

B, SCROLL PATTKRN BASIvIJ ON AOJACUNT C II I I-S KN<,HAV1N(. (>Nf MKTAI., INDIAN* 

C, CONSTRUCTION AS B, WOOI> CARVINCr. KNO! ISH, Is^Rl V fil'VI- N1 FKMTH CFNTTIRV. 

D JtBKAiaSANCK SC KO( T. HORDKK, UNI1V IMPAKTI^D BY DKTAH ORIsAKINl} AfltfWS STVM1. 
R, CONTJNUOtIS FKROII PATTKKN, 1H1- RtlNNINf, LINK hMt *.IN(, MM SCKOM (KNINLN, 
F, 9CROIL BORDER WITH BPANDRKLS OCCUPIMD BY niWI'KKNT COIUUR lO C.KNItRAt ftA 
GROUND. 



BORDERS. 




91 LEAVES DESIGNED TO FIT SPACES, 

details in the centres of the circles and in the spandrels, 
and connecting them, when desirable, with the stems. 
This simple method ensures equal distribution of detail. 
Possibly the native worker does not trouble to use geometric 
instruments, and draws the circles freehand, but evidently 
adherence to exact geometric form is not a consideration. 
"A similar method is apparent in the work of the English 




Q2. PARALLELISM IN BORDER DESIGN. 

carver (90 c), who also was probably working from tradition 
and not from a special design. It will be observed that the 
scroll branches cross the main stem, imparting strength and 
unity to the design Unity is also achieved (90 D) by carry- 
ing the pistil-extensions from the flowers across the stem 
lines. 

A departure from the usual principle of the undulate line 
with branching scrolls is shown (90 E), where the continuous 
stem is taken through the scroll branches, a characteristic of 
Salembier, a French designer of the eighteenth century 




BORDERS WITH STRONG AND WEAK SIDE, 



PATTERN DESIGN 





D 





94- A, fc, THE CONTINUOUS KRFT AND I-QUIVAJ INT IN Cl'RVI t> tl\|*, 

C, D, BORDF.K PATTERNS BASIJ) ON B, WOOD f'AHVIMf,. rNMIMI, I A,HI V i;IH MM, 
R, F, BORDMt PA11I-RNS BASKI) ON B, Utfchk I'AINIMl HHSAMIM, 



BORDERS 73 

With the development of the branches from the main 
wave-stem into leaves and flowers occurs a danger not 
always avoided even by the Greeks of the leafage looking 
too natural for the stem which bears it, or of the line of 
growth appearing too arbitrary for the leafage upon it (84 C) 
The great mistake is to halt, or to seem to halt, between two 
opinions. The difficulty is happily solved in Gothic work 
by deliberately designing leaves to fit the spaces between stem 
and margins (91). 

A wave line accentuates, of course, the parallelism of the 
marginal linesand this is further emphasised by details 
running parallel with it and with them as in the arrangement 
of leaves in borders 84 C, D, and E. parallelism can also be 
achieved by filling the spandrel-shaded ground spaces with 
a different colour (90 F). But parallelism is as much a 
matter of detail as of construction sometimes even more 
so (92), 

A division in the parallel direction, such as results from 
a wave or zig-zag line (93), gives an opportunity of 
strengthening one side of the border by means of stronger 
colour* The more fully developed wave in the same diagram 
gives a perfect counterchange pattern. 

Another system upon which the unit of a design repeats 
on both sides of the border, but not opposite, may be com- 
pared with the " drop repeat " The lower part of 94 B is 
an exact turnover of the upper, shifted along half the width 
of the repeat. Examples of this form of arrangement are 
given on the same illustration. 

The counterchange pattern (95) is clearly devised upon 
the diagonal lines of the zig-zag, though it repeats also upon 
the dotted upright lines. The upright tendency gives it the 
effect , no longer of a flowing, but of a steady pattern ; and 
we arrive at length at a form of pattern which turns over 
undisguisedly on lines at right angles to the margins. From 
this to the interrupted or broken borders, which form, as I 
said, a class distinct from the flowing, is only a step. 



74 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




95 THE COUNTERCHANGE BORDER ON ZIG-ZAG LINES. 

There is first the intermittent border (96), which makes 
not even a pretence of continuity, the unit of design recurring 
at set intervals with plain space between. It is among 







96 INTERMITTENT BORDER PATTERN. 

borders what a sprig pattern is among diapers. A yet simpler 
form of broken border is that in which the space is broken 
up into equal areas alternately light and dark (97), equivalent 
to the chequer in allover patterns. 




97. EQUIVALENT TO CHEQUER IN ALLOVER PATTERN. 



rnr 



XAX 



AAJ 



98. ALTERNATING FEATXTRES. 

Barely one move further, and we get alternate spaces 
filled each in a different way (98), the contrast being no 



BORDERS 



75 



longer between the masses of light and dark, or ornament 
and plain ground, but between simpler and more elaborate 
features. Geometric borders of the kind illustrated in 
diagram 99, counterchanging as it happens (cf. 97), are 
exceedingly useful, both because of their steadiness and 
their modesty. 




00- COUNTKRCHANGING GEOMETRIC BORDERS. 

Some of the borders last illustrated are, as it were, cut 
up into blocks. One very useful device in border design is 
simply to break the plain band with blocks of ornament 
(rosettes and what not) at regular intervals. Or it may be 
the parallel lines of mouldings, etc,, of which the flow is 
interrupted (100). This occurs commonly in Gothic archi- 
tecture. It is a plan frank to the point sometimes of brutality, 
hut not necessarily brutal witness the border of cherubs 
so clear to Andrea della Robbia. 

The " block " in its severest form is a sort of panel in 
miniature (101), and the panels sometimes included in a 
frieze design may be regarded as magnified blocks. In 
either case the idea is to provide stopping points and so to 
steady the effect. The use of something of the kind is very 



7 6 



PATTERN DESIGN 




100 BTOCK BORDER 




1 01 BLOCK OR PANEL BORDER 

apparent when it is remembered how much it simplifies 
the difficulty of turning a corner, and how easily the distance 
of the blocks apart can be regulated, so that there is no 
occasion to contract or spread out the ornament to make it 
fit unequal spaces. Plain space or lines of mouldings or 
mere diaper may be ruthlessly cut short ; but it is only 
quite the lowest organisms of design which will bear such 
mutilation Continuous lines interrupted by blocks often 
have the appearance of running behind them (100 and 102), 
In the case of a fully developed pattern like the fret (77), 
it would be cruel to mutilate it , the stopping places must 
be accommodated to the running design. 

When a border is made up of alternating blocks (101), 
say of freer and more formal design, it is not easy to say 
which may have been the starting point In the diagram 
(103) inset opposite, mere diaper assumes exceptional im- 
portance, and the panel, stop, or block takes almost the 
aspect of background. 





102. CONTINUOUS LINES, AS IT WERE, DISAPPEARING BEHIND UPRIGHT 

FEATURES. 



BORDERS 



77 






103. ORIENTAL USE OF DIAPERED INTERSPACES. 

A sure way of stopping the flow of a border is, not merely 
to introduce lines crossing it, but to make the pattern turn- 
over on those lines as in 104 A and B, where the wave becomes 
a scalloped stem bursting into bud. In 104 C and D the 
co-shaped scroll, itself made up of two inverted parts, turns 
over on itself, and forms the base line from which upsprmgs 
a bi-symmctrical growth. We have here a typical form of 
construction especially useful where the repeat is necessarily 
short. But the 0)-shaped scroll does not lend itself readily 
to foliation, unless we abandon the principle of growth 
a departure from nature unpardonable in proportion as the 
detail of the foliage approaches the natural. 

The OJ-scrolls have only to be planned on the zig-zag 
(104 E and F) to give a border of which each margin is 
equally pronounced- That is even more plainly the case 
when the zig-zagging o)-hnes are, as it were, crossed by 
themselves (104 G). If the depth of the border allows, the 
design can, of course, be turned over on a line midway 
between the margins (104 H). 



PATTERN DESIGN 




r*~c*rt ' 



B 






104 CRESTING PATTERNS 



H 



A, ASSYRIAN. B, C, GRUItK D, 1IALIAN KKNAIS&ANClt, 

K, BQRniiK PA*UI<RN OK OPPOfaINt <fl bCROM S, 
5, WOOD CARVINU liTARL* I'RKNCU RUNA1SSANC E 

, c> BORnhR PATTERN oi cROhbiNtr e/j-sc KOI LS 

H, VERTItAI AND HORI2WNTAL OPPOfalllON Ol- t/-bCROU S, WOt)DCAKVIN, 
CliNTURY: 



THE CIRCLE 



BB 




55. GOTHIC TRACERY DIAPER AND ITS CONSTRUCTIONAL LINES. 

shows not only circles but forms into which the segments of 
smaller circles enter. One circle, it seems, begets others. 

The tracery pattern next to it (52) is constructed by the 
help of small circles, themselves arranged on a circular (or 
hexagonal) plan, though what they give in the result is a 
sort of vertical wave pattern. 

The rather more elaborate design at the bottom of the 
same page (53) repeats upon the lines of a hexagon, the points 
of which correspond with the centres of star-shapes. But the 
six of these enclose another star and the hexagon is seen 



38 PATTERN DESIGN 

to be a compound unit of which the component diamond 
repeats as a drop. The small circles drawn within these 
diamonds at A, give by the mere effacement of a portion of 
them the twisting shapes at B, which only remain to be sub- 
divided as at C, and the skeleton is complete It is once more 
on intersecting circles that the pattern (54) on page 36 is 
set out , and the points of intersection give, as there shown, 
the points of the starry rosettes. 

Yet another Gothic tracery pattern is given (55), planno^l 
this time on the lines of the double square. One half of this 
is a turnover of the other. It works as a drop repeat, arfd 
shows plainly that at an early stage the circle entered into 
its construction Here again the stages by which it might 
possibly have been reached arc indicated ; but that is not to 
say with any certainty the designer may not have approached 
it from another direction, 

The limited variety of skeleton upon which pattern is 
built, is nowhere more plainly shown than in the way in 
which, in the maze of design, we find ourselves, no matter on 
what path we set out, arriving over and over again at precisely 
the same point. 




56 STRAIGHT-LINED AND CURWUNEAJR VP.RSIONS OF DIAPER. 



VI THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN. 

Various starting points for the same patternSix ways in which it 
might have been evolved The construction of sundry geometric diapers 
Influence of material upon design Some complex lattices. 

IT is not safe to pretend to say with authority, the way in 
which a given pattern was evolved ; there are usually several 
ways in which it might have come about. Close up the 
waved linesan diagram 51 and they give you an ogee diaper. 
Open out the ogee diaper and it gives you waved lines. The 
starting point of the interlacing pattern might equally well 
have been waved lines, the ogee, or the idea of a net. 

In diagram 56" (straight and curved lined versions of 
the same thing) the dotted lines may be taken to indicate 
the way the larger unit was built up of four smaller units 
forming in themselves a repeat ; but the smaller unit 
would result equally from, as it were, crossing the larger 
pattern by itself. The dotted diaper is the same as that in 
solid hues. Together they give a smaller diaper which may 
or may not have been its origin. 

There are at least half-a-dozen ways in which a simple 

39 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




57 BEGINNING WITH RECTANGULAR TRELLIS. 

** 

star pattern such as that above might possibly have been 
arrived at : 

i By beginning with a diamond lattice and occupying 
the spaces with four-pointed stars (57). 

2. By arranging either star-shapes or diamonds point to 




58. BEGJNNING WITH FOUR-POINTKD .STAKS. 



THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN. 




59. BEGINNING WITH CROSS BANDS OF DIAMONDS. 




60. BEGINNING WITH OCTAGONS AND STARS. 



42 PATTERN DESIGN 

point, and drawing diagonal lines across, between the stars, 
or through the diamonds (58). 

3. By starting on diagonal lines, crossing a row of 
diamonds by a similar row in the cross direction, and steady- 
ing the diamonds by giving them a backbone (59). 

4. By beginning with a diaper of octagons and four- 




BliGINNING WITH ZIG-ZA(J UNKfc. 



pointed stars, crossing that by itself, and adding lines to 
steady the effect (60). 

5. By beginning with zig-zag lines, crossing them by 
similar zig-zag lines, and crossing the pattern thus produced 
by itself (6 1 ) 

6. By starting with the eight-sided unit by no moans 
necessarily arrived at on the lines of diagonal zig-zags and 
crossing it by itself (62). 

In the two last-mentioned diagrams the long diagonal 



THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN 43 

backbone lines are for the sake of clearness omitted, and 
the unit of a repeat common m Oriental diaper-work is 
emphatically expressed. A very similar unit occurs in the 
diaper (63), which may be built up, as will be seen, in the 
simplest possible way, on the basis of the square. The squares 
have only to be crossed by X lines alternately in transverse 
direction, and the framework of the design is there. Another 




62. BEGINNING WITH EIGHT-SIDED UNIT. 

simple way of producing a very complex result (64) is shown 
on page 45 (65), where the design is resolved into a compara- 
tively simple square pattern crossed by itself. The construc- 
tion of the Arab lattice pattern (64), shown in single line to 
the left of diagram 65, is better explained by diagram 66, 
from which it will be seen that the unit is merely a square 
enclosing a small diamond, the sides of which diamond are 
successively continued to the corners of the square. 



44 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




63 COUNTERCHANGE DIAPER AND ITS CONSTRUCTION. 

The same diagram will help to explain the construction 
of the patterns shown at 67 and 70. 

Given the base lines to the left of diagram 66, and the 
desire to counterchange the colour, what is the designer to 
do ? It is easy to make the figures m one direction dark and 
in the other light ; but there remain the small intermediate' 
diamonds which can obviously be neither one nor the other. 
By effacing the diamond, however, and joining the loose ends 
of the lines to the left of the diagram in the way shown to 




64. ARAB LATTICE PATTERN. 



THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN 



45 




65. CONSTRUCTION OF ARAB LATTICE 64 

the right of it, the difficulty is at once overcome and we get 
tho diapers (67) on page 46. 

f> A similar difficulty is got over much in the same way in 
another Alhambresque tile pattern (70). The pointed pro- 
jections at the sides of the oblong shapes corresponding 
absolutely to indentations at the ends of them, the parts fit 
together perfectly, except for the small square spaces between. 
By dividing these into four triangular parts, alternately light 
and dark, the patterns are made to counterchange. And the 








66. DIAGRAM EXPLAINING THE COMPOSITION OF THE UNIT IN 
PATTERNS 64 A.ND 65 



46 



PATTERN DESIGN 




67. ARAB COUNTERCHANGE PATTERNS CONSTRUCTED AS 66. 

expedient is just what would occur to an artist building up 
his pattern, as the Moors did, out of shaped pieces of tile. 

The kind of key or swastika seen in diagram 66 occurs 
also fh diagram 68 which is in some sort a key to the con- 
struction of the Roman pavement pattern 69. The most 
likely way of setting about such a design would be to divide 




68, KEY TO CONSTRUCTION OF ROMAN PAVKMKNT PATTKKX 6<). 



* vmfltmvnfcWMvii* ft ^ ^ f 
* I tt*J 




5 ""H A "'H 

..: .- / \ s j.... 



\ % \ f !* s 

: : A s * t / ! : A s 

:...-... ,, ....:.^ y r...^. /\ pj...: 

: : / v : :..*............: / \ : x....i 




jqj y M : TA"7M_ V.h 

MBMVVMAMBM*CS*<l*tktt%WW a * * M 

. .... ^^ . f \. .,^ a 

5 / 




69. ROMAN MOSAIC PAVEMENT PATTERN 



PATTERN DEM<;N. 




70 ALHAMBRESQUE COUNTERCHANGR PATTERN, 

up a small square with swastika lines (as shown to the right 
of diagram 68) and to reverse the unit in either direction as 
shown by the arrows to the left where the dotted lines of 
the diamond are given. The two together (nearer the centre) 
give, in the space of four squares, the complete compound 
unit, which repeats on the lines of the larger square. 

A very broad hint as to the lines on which a designer 
actually went to work is sometimes given by the nature of 
the work on which he was engaged. Working in tessera*, a 
mosaicist would naturally start with lines which, somehow, 
thin as they may be, never look mean in a pavement. Work- 
ing with triangular-shaped blocks he would as naturally fit 
together the parts of his pattern puzzle-wise. 

Speaking as a practical pattern designer, and one who 
finds it most amusing to devise merely geometric pattern, 
I am strongly disposed to believe that the elaboration of 
Oriental patternwork (which resolves itself at last into a net- 
work of lines not easily to be disentangled) comes of the 
practice of building up designs out of little triangular-faced 
pieces of marble, glass, or tile. 



THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN. 



49 



The intricate lines develop themselves as the artist 
prgceeds , and, having got them, he goes on to emphasise 
them. Carvers and others translate the tile pattern into 
line, as in the natural course of their craft they must, and 
in that way we get the cunningly intersecting line work of 
pierced lattices and so forth (71). Designing upon the lines 
themselves he would get caught in the meshes of his own 
pattern, and lose the sequence of line so difficult to keep in 



view. 



It dazzles one to think of the plan of no more elaborate 




71. LATTICE PATTERN, POSSIBLY DERIVED FROM TESSELATED WORK. 

a lattice than that above. The simplified unit of the design 
is wshown in dotted lines. It might equally have been built 
up upon the lines of either -of the diagrams (72-73), octagons 
point to point, with four-pointed star-shapes between. 
And in this particular case it is not clear that any great 
advantage would have been gained by building up the 
pattern ; but where the component shapes arc triangles or 
compounds of triangles, it is not only easier to play with 



PATTERN DESIGN 




72. LINES ON WHICH LATTICE 71 MHJHT HAVk HKKN M'U,T. 

them than with the involved lines of a complicated lattice 
but much more fun to do so. 

The complexity of the lattice (74) on page 51 is loss- 
puzzling when one realises the plan of it, a squat diamond, 




73 LINES ON WHICH LATTICE 71 MIGHT HAVE BERN* BVITT. 



THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERN. 




74, ARAB LATTICE AND THE LINES OF ITS CONSTRUCTION. 



PATTERN DESIGN 






*" \>l\T5tf^5^" 




75 ARAB LATTICK AND ITS CONSTRUCTION 



which may be divided into two equilateral triangles A and 
B (one a turnover of the other) either of which may he sub- 
divided, as the dotted lines show, into equal equilateral 
triangles and the corresponding diamonds, Given those 
lines it is a comparatively simple thing to build up the 
lattice. 

One more instance. The repeat of the pattern above (75; 
(equivalent to the tile which would go to, make it, or the* 
block from which it could be printed) is indicated in the 
skeleton to the right, a square ; but the component unit 5 
all there in the triangle which forms only a fourth part of it. 
And of the twelve parts of which (as the dotted lines show; 
that is made up, all but one are repeated three or four times 
over, so that it takes figures of only four different shapes to^ 
make it presumptive evidence at least that that is the way 
in which the design came about, not perhaps in this particular 
instance of the lattice, but in the case of some pattern which 
was its prototype. 



BORDERS 



79 







105. BORDER GROWING ALTERNATELY FROM EITHER SIDE. 

Yet another plan is, as it were, to turn over (but not 
opposite) a design which grows from one of the marginal 
lines. This amounts to the same thing as a pattern growing 
alternately from either margin (105). 

It has been assumed, thus far, that a border is enclosed 
within marginal lines. That is sometimes not the case ; but 
enclosing lines are understood, if not expressed ; the design 
acknowledges its confines , otherwise it would hardly fulfil 
the function of a border or a frame. A frame is of course a 
border, the inner line of which is often more strongly marked 
than the outer. Another form of border which emphatically 
acknowledges one margin or boundary line is a cresting. 
Fringes again, valances, and scalloped edgings depend on one 
margin for their rigidity. All such borders are strong on the 
side from which they grow or hang, weak on the outer edge, 
though such weakness may be to some extent counteracted 
by weight of detail on that side and by acknowledgment of 




8o 



PATTERN DESIGN. 






107. THE PLAN OF THE BORDER IN RELATION TO ITS D1RKCTION. 

the straight line (106). The softening and weakening of 
effect of a fringed outline needs no pointing out. Even in 
the case of a border within double marginal lines the strong 
side is naturally (but not inevitably) that from which the 
pattern grows. 

It is not so much the construction as the detail of a border 
which is affected by its position upright like a pilaster, or 
horizontal like a frieze; but the lines of growth naturally 
depend to some extent upon its direction. Here again the 
lines possible may be quite inappropriate to the situation. 
The scrolls, for example, shown at A in diagram 107 might 
eventually launch out in the manner shown at B or c accord- 
ing to the horizontal or vertical position of the border* Still, 
there are very clear reasons for the choice, let us say, of a 
flowing scroll for a horizontal border, and for a central 
upright for a perpendicular one. In fact, the central stem 
in a horizontal border needs almost to be waved ; in an 
upright one it often needs to be straight or nearly so. 

It stands to reason that borders which have to turn a 
corner must be designed to turn. A flowing pattern such as a 
fret or a wave scroll naturally runs round. But it need 
not. It may be schemed to start from the centre of the strip 
and meet at the corners or to start from the corners and 



BORDERS. 



81 



^ 




1 08. FRAME DESIGN, THE PATTERN TURNED OVER, BUT 
OTHERWISE NOT REPEATING. 



PATTERN DESIGN. 





109 THE BORDER IN RELATION TO THE CORNER 

meet midway between them It may start, again, in the 
centre of the lower border and meet in the centre of the upper 
one as m diagram 1 08, one-half of which is a turnover of the 
other. This hardly amounts to repeated pattern. It may 
seem a simple thing thus to sketch a pattern freely without 
heed or hindrance of repetition, but it is no slight tax upon 
the designer's faculty of distribution For, cither the design 
must be quite equally spread, so as to give very much the 
value of a tint, or else some leading lines and points of 
emphasis must be determined, and this, without orderly 
distribution, is not an easy thing to do. 

It has been shown already that borders which do not flow 
present in some cases little or no difficulty at the turning 
points. Except where there is a feature in the design which 
just occupies the corner (a " block J> for example- 109, c) a 
framing border has necessarily to be planned with a view 
to the happy modification of the unit of repeat at the corners. 

In determining the dimensions of the repeat, the length 
of the border or borders, into which it must divide, may be 
reckoned, cither from the line which marks the mitre at the 
corner (109, B) or from the cross line where one border would 
intersect the other (109, I)). The design may turn over at 
the corner on the diagonal or on square lines. 




HO. BREAKS IN THE BORDER 



84 PATTERN DESIGN 

The shorter the border, the more important becomes the 
consideration of the corner That may be the starting point 
of the design. Indeed, it may constitute the whole design, 
which then turns over both upon the diagonal mitre lines and 
upon the upright and horizontal lines which would divide the 
panel into four equal parts (109, A). Apart from the corner, 
there may be breaks in the border (110) which (unless it is 
of the simplest lines merely) have naturally to be taken into 
account in its design A break in the border is sufficiently 
accounted for by a patera or some such device. The deliberate 
snipping out of spaces, as at a a (no), so as to form gaps 
round which to bend the border and thus break the sequence 
of straight lines, needs some justification. Da Ucline 
adopted it in the windows of the Ccrtosa near Florence. 

A circular border presents no more difficulty than a simple 
strip of given length * the length of the repeat is at the dis- 
cretion of the designer . he may divide the space into any 
number of equal parts. The design may be constructed on 
radiating or on flowing lines or on both. 

In the common case of a series of concentric borders, the 
two systems may conveniently be used to counteract one 
another the radiating lines are of course steadier. Flowing 
borders may flow, if need be, in opposite directions. As a 
rule, it is well that there should be some relation between 
the repeats of concentric borders at all events where the 
repeat is apparent. They need not by any means be of equal 
length ; but they should divide one into the other. 

The plan of a pattern (border or filling) influences or is 
influenced by the detail of its design. The one is bound up 
with the other. In settling a plan, one thinks of the detail to 
come ; in determining detail, one bears in mind the plan on 
which it is to be distributed. But there is no rule to be laid 
down excepting that of consistency. 

It will be found that certain lines of construction are in 
accord with certain forms of ornament. Rigid detail goes 
with formal geometric lines, relatively natural foliage with 



BORDERS 85 

free growth; and between those two extremes there are 
infinite gradations from severe to formal treatment, deter- 
mining, or determined by, the lines of distribution. 

But neither Arab on the one hand nor Japanese on the 
other, neither Greek nor Goth nor artist of the Renaissance, 
has settled anything for us beyond the necessity of corre- 
spondence between detail and its distribution. 

How to do it is our affair : we have the experience of the 
past to guide us , but to adopt just what has been found to 
answer well enough is thee last shift of laziness if it is not 
mere dullness. The happy conjunction of this detail with that 
construction is evidence of their conformity only, not of the 
incongruity of other combinations personal to the artist. It 
is possible to fry without bread crumbs. 



VIII PRACTICAL PATTERN PLANNING. 

Possible and practicable lines of pattern construction Linos often fixed 
for the designer Conditions of production aftect plan Triangular plan, 
oriental Rectangular plan, western Relation of one plan to the other 
of triangular and octagonal repeat to rectangulai Possibilities of th<* 
diamondDesign regulated by proportions of repeat. 

THE lines of the square or of the parallelogram, of the 
diamond or of the triangle, are naturally, as a glance at our 
illustrations will show, conspicuous in geometric design ; 
and, even where they do not make up the pattern altogether, 
they constantly make part of it. The design opposite (in) 
is, for example, in its main lines only a translation into 
waving lines of the simple hexagon and star pattern on page 
19. But these same square, diamond, and triangular lines 
underlie also repeated pattern of the freest kind. And it is 
because they are the basis of all repeated pattern that it 
behoves the designer to acquaint himself with certain simple 
geometric principles, as indispensable to him as a know- 
ledge of superficial anatomy to the figure-draughtsman. 

The fact is that to many arts, or to proficiency in them, 
and certainly to proficiency in pattern design, there goes a 
modicum of science without which the merely practical 
conditions imposed by the necessity of repetition, and 
especially of repetition within a given area, are hardly to be 
overcome. 

86 



PRACTICAL PATTERN PLANNING 




III. CURVILINEAR DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGRAM 26. 



The art of the pattern designer is, not merely in devising 
pretty combinations of form, but in scheming them upon lines 
not of his choice at all, mapped out for him, on the contrary, 
by the conditions of his work, by no means always those 
which he would have chosen for himself as the most promis- 
ing. His task is to get beautiful results out of no matter what 
unpromising conditions. Then indeed he may claim to be 
an artist. 

I have been at some pains to lay down the lines 
,on which pattern may possibly be constructed, but the 
possible lines are not in all cases practicable. Conditions 
of production have to be taken into account, and they 
affect not merely the character of design, but its plan 
also. 

A necessary preliminary to design is the determining of 
the lines on which it shall be distributed to plan it, that is to 
say. The possible lines are few, and the more clearly the 



88 



PATTERN DESIGN 



artist realises what they are, the easier it will be for him to 
determine which of them are available, and the one it is 
expedient to adopt. Mechanical conditions or practical con- 
siderations may so limit his choice that he has no alternative, 
and it is mere waste of time to do anything but proceed at 
once upon the inevitable course 

The system upon which of old the mathematically-minded 
Oriental craftsman built up, out of the simplest units, elabor- 
ate schemes of ornament, encouraged the use of triangular 
lines as the basis of his design The more practical and 
expeditious habit of the Western manufacturer leads him to 
work more often upon rectangular lines, and compels the 
designer to abandon the triangular basis, except in so far 
as triangular units can be made to conform to rectangular 
repetition (see below). The designer for manufacture, there- 
fore, is restricted as the handworker is not He works, how- 
ever, on the old lines still manufacture following constantly 
in the footsteps of handicraft 

We put down early methods of design to tradition. But 
traditions grew out of ways of working ; and we find ourselves 
to-day using expedients of design which, if they had not 




.* / 

X- ........ y* 6 inches > % -M T 

\//\//f 

~ ----- " 



I*~s\ ----- >v" 2-1 tncb3X~- / 
A A A A A 
/ \ / \/ x < / \ l / \ 



112 DIAGRAM SHOWING RKLATION OF KQUILATKKAI, TRIANW.KS <V. 
HfcXAGONS TO SQUARE RfcPEAT. 



PRACTICAL PATTERN PLANNING 



89 





resulted from the simple contrivances 
of elementary handicraft, would most 
certainly have been evolved out of the 
more complex conditions of modern 
manufacture The square lines, for 
example, given us by the mqst 
rudimentary form of tapestry are 
equally imposed by the power loom. 

It is on square lines that we have 
mainly to work, and our design has to 
be considered in relation to the rect- 
angular repeat which the conditions 
of to-day determine 

The possibilities of working upon 
other plans are limited To adapt, 
for example, the equilateral triangle or 
octagon to a square repeat measuring 
let us say 21 inches either way, is 
possible only on a scale which makes 
it not often worth doing 

Take 21 inches as the base of an 
equilateral triangle. It will be found 
to measure from base to apex 1 8 inches 
The difference between 21 and 18 is 3, 
the greatest common measure of both 
This gives us an equilateral triangle 
of 3 inches from point to point as the 
largest which will repeat precisely 
within an area of 21 inches by 21. 

The accompanying diagram (112), 
though it represents only half that 
area (21 inches by loj), explains the 
situation and proves the point. It "3- DIAGRAM SHOWING 
shows also the possibilities of adapting JJ "T * 
a diamond equal to two equilateral RECTANGULAR LINES. 
triangles to the rectangular space. 





PATTERN DESIGN. 







\ 

i 

114. INDIAN LATTICE PATTERN BUILT ON TRIANGULAR LINES. 



PRACTICAL PATTERN PLANNING. 91 

A diamond measuring io-| inches by 6 inches repeats in the 
width 3 1 times (which would work out only as a " drop " 
pattern presently to be discussed, page 100). To repeat 
on the square, or as a straight-running pattern, these 
diamonds must needs be quartered and reduced to 5 by 3 
inches. 

The hexagon, which is a multiple of the equilateral 
triangle, adapts itself no more readily to the square (113) 
Hexagons fealf the width of the square, though they would 
repeat lengthwise in it, would not be equal-sided, but of 
the elongated form shown at the top of the diagram. True 
hexagons would not fill the square, but only a space of 21 
by 1 8 inches. 

Equilateral hexagons of 6 inches from side to side would 
repeat 3^ times in the width (and work therefore only as a 
" drop "). Like the triangles, they would need to be 
reduced to 3 inches wide before they would repeat in 
horizontal order. 

The designer is frequently asked by inexperienced people 
to adapt designs to proportions which put them quite out of 
the question. If he is not well aware of the possibilities, 
and especially the impossibilities, of so doing, he is likely 
to waste valuable time over a task which was from the 
first hopeless. Few persons would realise, until failure 
had taught them, how proportionately small a triangle or 
hexagon it is which lends itself to a square repeat. 

Let any one try and make the lattice pattern on page 90 
repeat on rectangular lines of given dimensions, and he 
will realise, as no verbal explanation can possibly prove 
to him, how difficult it is to think of it, even, as built up 
on anything but the triangular lines which are in great 
measure responsible for it. 




IX. THE TURNOVER. 

A weaver's device Doubles width of pattern Exact turnover not desir- 
able where conditions do not make it necessary Balance must be 
preserved Use of doubling over in border design Suited to stencil- 
ling and pouncing. 

To the practice of folding or doubling over in the vertical 
direction, may be traced a large class of bi-symmetncal 
designs. Mere doubling makes a sort of pattern ; and some 
of the steadiest and most satisfactory designs rely to a large 
extent for their symmetry and steadiness upon the reversing 
of their lines. 

To the weaver the " turnover " (115) is a veritable 
god-send, enabling him, without increase of cost or trouble, 
to double the width of his pattern. It does not even involve 
the cutting of more cards ; it is simply a question of the 
gear of the loom. 

So obvious is the advantage of the " turnover " to the 
weaver that the device might well have originated with him. 
But that is a point upon which it is useless to speculate. 
A man has only to double a sheet of paper and he can with 
one action of the knife cut out the two halves of what when 
it is opened out is a bi-symmetrical pattern. 

Once invented, the "turnover proves the easiest and 
simplest means of doubling without more ado the width of 
a pattern 

92 



THE TURNOVER. 



93 



Apart from the fresh facilities afforded by it for broader 
pattern planning, and the much larger scale of design which 
it makes possible (observe how very narrow is the strip turned 
over in what is in effect a bold Gothic tapestry (i 16)) , designers 
generally, even though they may have no technical grounds 
for so doing, will 
" turn over " the 
lines of a design, 
partly perhaps with 
the idea of economis- 
ing draughtsman- 
ship, but chiefly with 
a view to the value of 
the steadiness of effect 
to be obtained by that 
means. They per- 
mit themselves, how- 
ever, in that case (or 
they lay themselves 
open to the charge 
of rather niggardly 
invention), consider- 
able variety of detail 
within those steady 
lines. When rigidly 
exact repetition is 
no part of the con- 
ditions imposed by 
manufacture, it is 

almost incumbent upon the designer to assert his freedom, 
and not, for example, to suggest that his printed pattern is 
woven. He does well to avoid making one side of his 
design a mere reflection, as it were, of the other ; and in 
particular its too mechanical turnover at the axis (117) 

The absolutely strict turnover of any but the most rigid 
pattern, especially when the main stem is its axis, is so 




115 BYZANTINE " TURNOVER " PATTERN. 



94 PATTERN DESIGN 

unsatisfactory that weavers often arrange their looms so that 
there is a central space of some inches (s) in which there is 
no turning over (118), 

There is no occasion or excuse for the objectionable 




GOTHIC " TURNOVER " PATThRN. 



mechanism when, as in printing, the conditions do not 
compel it. 

Although it adds greatly to the interest of a pattern in 
which the main lines are reversed to introduce, if the con- 
ditions allow it, variety of detail, it is not safe to take liberties 
with the lines themselves or with the proportions of the 
opposite masses, else the balance of the design , which it is 



THE TURNOVER 



95 




117. QUASI- ^TURNOVER" PATTERN. 



THE TURNOVER. 



97 



most important to preserve, may be lost. It is essential, too, 
that, for example, any two opposite features should be pre- 
cisely opposite, and that their branches, curving from the 
central stem or towards it, should turn, like the spirals on 
page 98 (119), on precisely the same level. Inaccuracy in 
either of these respects, though it may pass in a drawing for 
artistic freedom, is almost sure, in repetition on the wall, to 
give the impression that it is out of the straight. The eye 
expects a level ; and it is strange how slight a deviation from 
it will produce an unfortunate effect. And so with any 



ttirnooer 



titrnoo^r 




i 



Il8. TURNOVER DESIGN WITH CENTRAL STRIP NOT TURNED OVER 






PATTERN DESIGN. 




IK;. " TURNOVER " AND "DROP" PATTERN 

departure from the upright. In what concerns the equili- 
brium of a pattern it is impossible to be too mechanically 
exact. 

A common device in design is to turn over the unit of 
design as in the diagram opposite (120), but that does not 
constitute what is known as a turnover repeat unless it turns 
over on the same level. 

The " turnover " is nowhere more valuable than in border 
design. It is a most useful means of stopping the flow of the 
pattern, and of giving the lines across > which go so far towards 



THE TURNOVER. 



99 







120 NOT A TURNOVER REPEAT 

the stability continually demanded in a border. Such lines 
may be expressed or understood : the counterpoise of parts 
suggests the axial line even when it is not put down. 

A sprig or other pattern for wall decoration may just 
as easily be turned over as not. A stencil or a pounce 
has only to be turned face to the wall to give the design 
in reverse. 



X. THE " DROP " REPEAT. 

Scope given by drop repeat Designed on diamond lines And on the 
square Geometrically same result Practically different patterns 
Opportunity of carrying pattern beyond width of stuff Brick or masonry 
plan Octagonal plan Step pattern False drop 

THE mystery of the drop repeat is more easily explained than 
how it came to be a mystery at all. The root of the trouble 
in designing it is perhaps in the fact that the inexperienced 
will not take the trouble to set out repeats enough of their 
pattern to show how the lines of it will come. Designers of 
experience do that as a matter of course because of their 
experience. 

The pattern of a woven or printed stuff must naturally 
follow on throughout the length and across the breadth of 
the piece the top edge of the design must, that is to say, 
join on to the bottom edge, and the one side on to the other. 
But, whilst it is obvious that the pattern must follow in a 
continuous line throughout the length of the stuff, it is not a 
matter of necessity that it should be designed to take the same 
level when the strips come to be sewn together or hung upon 
the wall. They have to tally that is all. The pattern may 
just as well be schemed to " drop " in the making up or 
hanging. 

It is quite possible to design a pattern which shall repeat 
both on level lines and as a drop. The diagram opposite 
(121) shows that very plainly. It was drawn by Professor 
Beresford Pite to explain how some wall-papers of his design 
could be hung either way. 

The planning of a drop repeat is in reality a very simple 

100 



THE "DROP" REPEAT 



101 



matter, how simple may be seen in the diagram overleaf (122), 
in which the upright lines mark the width of the stuff, and 
the squares the limits of the repeat. It will be seen that the 
central feature in stripe A does not in stripe B range with it, 
but falls midway between two repeats : it " drops," In fact, 
one-half the depth of the repeat. In the third stripe, which 
drops again m the same way, the feature finds once more its 
level ; in the fourth it drops again, rights itself once more in 



^ 



^0 

IP 



*BlocK>; 





Sarne'Block'Qs- 
but* hunc^-as-drop 

121 DIAGRAMS SHOWING HOW A PATTERN MAY BE DESIGNED TO 
HANG IN TWO WAYS. 

the fifth, and so on to the end. A further effect of the drop is 
seen in the direction of the stem ; the wave, instead of repeat- 
ing itself, seems to take the opposite line, and not to follow 
but to be turned over or reversed. 

The modern animal and fish patterns (258, Nos i and 3) 
are schemed on the usual lines of a drop repeat, but the units 
are joined up into a continuous whole that gives a diaper 
effect, and also conveys the impression of flight or movement. 
This kind of diaper founded on living forms is typical of 



102 PATTERN DESIGN. 

SWpe A Stripe B 




: -...!>. -; I /O L .. 

122 DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE THE "DROP" REPEAT 

Japanese design, though it is not generally designed on the 
drop method. 

It will be clear how much new scope is given by the 
" drop " pattern. 

And what applies to the strip of material applies no less 
to the units of a repeat within the width of the stuff. A 
pattern, for example, half the width of the material may drop 
within its area so that, in the stuff as it hangs, the double 
pattern does not drop. A drop pattern one-third the width 
of the stuff would hang as a drop again. 

Referring once more to diagram 122, it will be seen that, 
though the pattern is built upon the square, lines drawn from 




LCSfti 

123 DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE THE WAY REPEATS MUST FIT* 




THE " DROP " REPEAT 



103 



centre to centre of a given feature in it form a diamond ; and 
this diamond, equally with the square, contains all the parts 
of the pattern, and may, just as well as the square, be 
regarded as the unit of repeat. 

The difficulty which the inexperienced have in scheming 
a drop pattern would be considerably diminished if they 
would only accustom themselves to think of it as a question 




A. B C. 

124 DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENCE OF MEASURE WHEN A 
SQUARE REPEAT IS TURNED ROUND TO WORK AS A DROP. 

of filling a diamond instead of a square. That is all it is 
designing, in fact, within a trellis of diagonal, instead 
of vertical and horizontal, lines. 

The diamond is merely a square or parallelogram turned 
part way round In designing upon the one plan an artist 
would probably proceed to do differently from what he 
would have done upon the other , but the problem is the 
same. The opposite sides of either pattern have to tally 
The lines ending at A B (in diagram 123) must be taken up 
at C D, or vzce versa. In the same way whatever portion of 
the design extends beyond the margin B D or A C must recur 
again within the margin on the opposite side, no matter 
whether of square or diamond. The pattern has only to 
join on and fit. 

It should be observed, however, that if a pattern designed 
upon square lines is turned part way round, though it repeats 




WIDTH7AATfcRIAL| 




ev ^M^ro^^^-/^ 

Msx. ! M I & V^~^ 

^3-1 Xvi>y __ < '^,e<\ 

^r ^ 




X i 



THE " DROP * REPEAT. 105 

as a drop upon the lines of the diamond, the measure of the 
repeat (as manufacturers reckon it, from top to bottom and 
from side to side) is no longer the same. If, that is to say, 
the squares in A of diagram 124 measure 5 inches each way, 
the diamonds in B (though it is the same pattern drawn to 
the same scale) measure 7 inches from point to point , and 
that is the trade way of reckoning, with which it is advisable 
to fall in. 

It is sometimes quite worth while, bearing this danger 
always m mind, to start a design (124, c), not the full 
width of the stuff, but on a diamond seven-fifths of its width. 
This would work out as a drop pattern of the right width 
twice as long as it is wide ; but the start would suggest a 
pattern which could never have occurred to any one working 
within the narrower strip. The expedient is useful especially 
in designing floor or ceiling patterns in which the direction 
of the design is not meant to be obvious. 

It would be difficult to overestimate the value of the drop 
repeat, or of the diamond plan upon which it is commonly 
but not invariably devised. 

Mechanically speaking, there is no reason why the design 
should drop just half its depth. It might drop any distance ; 
and there are occasions when a pattern which drops a 
third is extremely useful. But if the drop were very slight, 
say only one-sixth of its depth, it would take six repeats 
before the design righted itself, and, moreover, the recur- 
rence of any pronounced feature in it would be apt to mark 
a diagonal line A stepped pattern has naturally a tendency 
thai way. One great use, indeed, of the diamond plan is, 
that it minimises the danger of horizontal stripes, likely 
always to occur in a pattern repeating on the same level. 
In the case of a drop of one-half, the stripes go, as it were, 
alternately up and down, and give zig-zag lines, if any, or 
perhaps the lines of a trellis, to which there is little or no 
objection. 

Another condition materially affecting design is the area 




126. TWO PLANS UPON WHICH THE SAME DESIGN MIGHT HAVE 
BEEN BUILT. 



THE " DROP " REPEAT 107 

of the repeat, the proportions of which are determined often 
by conditions quite beyond the control of the artist 

It was shown in diagram 122 that a drop pattern designed 
upon square lines was contained also within the lines of a 
diamond. In the same way a pattern designed within the 
lines of a diamond is contained within the lines of a rect- 
angular figure working as a drop. Many drop patterns are 
designed upon the lines of the diamond. They may be 
designed equally within the lines of a diamond two sides of 
which run parallel with the width of the fabric. It will be 
seen m diagram 125 how the pattern there given in skeleton 
is contained equally within the square, the squat diamond, 
and the diamond formed by upright and slanting lines. It 
will repeat, that is to say, as a square pattern occupying the 
width of the material, as a diamond, and as a pattern of 
the width of the material cut, as it were, upon the slant 

In theory the design might have been started upon any 
one of these plans. In practice such a pattern would have 
been more likely to have resulted from working upon the 
lines of the diamond * as a point of fact it did result from it. 

The design opposite (126), actually planned upon the 
diamond, might possibly have come about upon rectangular 
lines ; it would certainly not have resulted from working 
upon the diagonal lines shown in diagram 125. 

Such a pattern, on the other hand, as Walter Crane's 
(130) was clearly built upon the upright lines given by the 
width of the repeat (shown in dots) and lines across (from 
left to right) meeting them at the points emphasised by the 
puff balls of the dandelion. The* sweep of marguerites, 
plainly the leading feature of the design and perhaps the 
start of it, falls very comfortably within the slanting shape, 
which seems almost to have suggested the composition of 
the flowers, evidently planned to take their graceful line, 
and afterwards provided with stalks.* 

* Having made this assertion, I thought it as well to ask Walter 
Crane's authority for making it, and he tells me I am quite right. 



io8 



PATTERN DESIGN 



ay" \ ^""* 5=~v 
\ J L J < > 
I ^ ^^d >v^r: 



127 DIAGRAM SHOWING MECHANICAL RELATION OF VARIOUS PLANS. 

Mechanically it all amounts to precisely the same thing 
You have but to snip off the two opposite corners of the 
square to the left of diagram 127, and shift them to a 
position beyond the lines of the square, and they give you 
the oblique shape You have but to snip off the four corners 
and arrange the pieces on either side of the remaining 
hexagon, as shown to the right of the diagram, and they 
give you the squat diamond. Artistically it makes all the 
difference in the world to the designer upon which plan he 
sets to work. Either one of them would encourage him to 
do something which the others would not. His design is 
materially influenced by the shape he sets himself to fill. 
It would never occur to him, for instance, to stretch a wreath 
of flowers across a width of space which he did not sec before 
him. And the idea of extending a design far beyond the 
width of the material in which it is to be executed, may 
be set down as directly due to working on the linos of 
the diamond. A designer does not, except in certain 
deliberately formal patterns, keep his design within the 
lines upon which it repeats. But he has them always in 
view , and he does not stray from them so far that it ceases 
to make a difference what lines he works on. The advantage 





128. DIAGRAM SHOWING DIVISION 
OF SQUARE REPEAT INTO 
THREE PARTS. 



139. DIAGRAM SHOWING TRANS 
POSITION? OF PARTS OK SQUARJ* 
TO FORM \VIDK DIAMOND, 



i.-y./; sit',! <* 
^#&- /*. 



;*& 



130. WALL-PAPER DESIGN BY WALTER CRANE. 




131 STEP PATTERN WHICH IS NOT A DROP REPEAT. 



THE " DROP " REPEAT. 



in 



of setting out a drop design upon the plan of the diamond 
is, that the simplicity of the four straight lines enables 
him to keep more clearly in view than the other lines upon 
which the drop is worked, the ultimate relation of the parts 
of his design, and the order in which they will recur. 
Perhaps the most conspicuous advantage of the drop repeat 
is that it enables one to perform the apparently impossible 
feat of designing a pattern twice the width of given material, 
which yet works out perfectly as a repeat within its limits. 




132. BRICK OR MASONRY PATTERN. 

Working on the lines of the diamond, it is easy to do this 
You have only to subdivide the area of your square repeat 
as here shown (128), (it might just as well have been a 
parallelogram as a square) so that two smaller divisions A 
and V together equal the larger y. Then if you transpose 
the smaller parts A and V so that together with y they form 
a squat diamond twice the width of the original square, you 
have the repeat of a design which amounts to, mechanically, 
the same thing as a square repeat of half that width. In the 
case of materials which can be dropped one-half their depth 
in hanging or in making up this is clearly a great gam. 

The advantage, it may be argued, is only apparent : what 



112 



PATTERN DESIGN 




DIAGRAMS OF BRICK -PLAN 
AND ITS RELATION TO DROP 
REPEAT. 



is put into one strip is, as 
it were, taken out of the 
other; but in the case of 
pattern appearance must 
be allowed to count for a 
great deal. It is for want 
of knowing things like this, 
the common property of 
trade designers, thai, genius 
notwithstanding, artists in- 
experienced in practical 
work fall short even of 
the trade standard of 
efficiency. 

The skeleton given by 
the upright marginal lines 
of the fabric and parallel 
lines in a diagonal direction 
across it, is plainly helpful 
in the design of a diagonal 



THE "DROP" REPEAT 113 

stripe. The angle of inclination determines the depth of 
the drop. 

An all-over pattern may also be designed within those 
lines ; and they encourage greater freedom than rectangular 
or diamond lines ; but it is not easy on such a scaffolding 
to balance the parts of a design ; " and if there are emphatic 
features in it they are liable to come out awkwardly in 
repetition. 

Another very useful stepped plan on which to scheme 
especially patterns which take diagonal lines is the brick or 
masonry basis which also works out as a drop. 

In the tile pattern (132) the masonry lines form part of 
the design, and materially influence the lines of its growth. 

It will be seen from the diagrams opposite (133) that a 
pattern designed upon brick lines and one upon the lines 
of the ordinary drop may amount to precisely the same 
thing, though either plan would naturally affect to some 
extent the growth of the pattern (The diamond lines in 




134. HEXAGON PLAN ITS RELATION TO DIAMOND. 



114 



PATTERN DESIGN 



n 



11 



11 



11 



135. COUNTERACTING LINES OF DESIGN REPEAT A DOUBLE SQUARE 

the lower of the two diagrams show plans upon which 
theoretically it might have been, but practically would not 
have been, constructed.) The diagonal lines may wave as 
freely as you please within the four sides of the brick, at 
the same time that the rigid skeleton of brickwork enables 
you to distribute your flowers or other free-growing features 
in strict order. 

The adoption of the brick plan leads sometimes to con- 
fusion as to the dimensions of the repeat. The brick pattern 
above would not answer to the description of " a drop repeat 
twice as wide as it is deep." As a unit of those dimensions, 
it does not drop in the technical sense. It drops, in fact, as 
a repeat twice as deep as it is wide, or as a right-angled 
diamond. If, therefore, a drop repeat of given dimensions 




136. DIAMOND FORMS RESULTING FROM COUNTER ACTING LINKS- 
REPEAT A DOUBLE SQUARE. 



THE "DROP" REPEAT 115 

were specified, and the artist were to send in a design 
planned on a brick of those proportions, he might have it 
thrown back upon his hands, as not being to size. 

The hexagon, again, does not drop in the orthodox 
manner, though it amounts to the same thing as a diamond 
which does drop. Diagram 134 will show how, if the dotted 
portions of the hexagon were cut off, and attached again in 
the position of the solid black triangles, the result would be 
a diamond. 

But it is not convenient to design upon the hexagon. It 
gives you no scope which the diamond does not ; and it 




137 DIAGRAM OF STEP PLAN WHICH DOES NOT GIVE A 
" DROP " REPEAT. 



PATTERN DESIGN. 

s JiCn \ J 




138 DIAGRAM OF PATTERN WHICH DROPS ONE-THIRD OF ITS 

DEPTH. 

does not help you to avoid a too horizontal arrangement 
of features, as the diamond does. It may be at times 




139. PATTERN WHICH DROPS ONE-QUARTER OF THE DEPTH OF REPEAT. 



THE " DROP " REPEAT. 117 

convenient to prove a design planned upon the diamond on 
the lines of the hexagon. 

A drop design upon vertical and horizontal lines, say 
upon the square or other rectangular step, does not afford 
the opportunities given by the diamond plan ; but it has 
compensating advantages of its own, especially where it is 
desirable to give an upright tendency to the pattern, and 
more especially still when the depth of the repeat happens 
to measure (as in some manufactures tiles for example 
it is convenient it should) precisely twice its width. The 
unit of repeat being in this case a double square, gives us 
the trellis on which the chessboard pattern is built A 
chequer pattern (illustration 135) works as a drop repeat 
one square wide and two squares deep. 

The unit of a double square planned to step half-way is 
most convenient in the case where it is desired to preserve 
square lines of construction in the design and yet to avoid 
any tendency it might have in one direction or the other. 
This is effectually done by counteracting the vertical tendency 
of the lines in one division of the repeat by horizontal lines 
in the other (135). Counteracting diagonal lines give, in 
the same way, diamonds (136).* 

Further uses of the step, in lieu of the diamond, will be 
apparent when it comes to the discussion of freer patterns 
designed on its lines. 

There is one form of step pattern which does not really 
constitute what is understood by a drop repeat. The second 
strip in diagram 137 drops slightly; but the third reverts 
again to the level of the first (or, if it can be said to drop, 
it takes a step out of all proportion to the last). As a 
consequence any such features as the flowers at the top of 
the repeat would, in recurrence, give a sort of zig-zag line. 

True, a drop pattern may recover itself in the third 

* Another variety of the drop pattern in which the unit is not merely 
of the proportions of a double square, but is built deliberately upon the 
two squares counterchanged, is shown on page 142. 
H 



n8 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




140. PATTERN WHICH DROPS ONE-THIRD OR TWO-THIRDS OF ITS 
DEPTH UNIT OF REPEAT SUBDIVIDED AS IN 131. 

repeat, but only on the condition that it drops just half 
its depth. A drop of one-third its depth recovers itself only 
in the fourth strip (138); a drop of one-fourth its depth, 
only in the fifth (139), and so on. In a drop repeat, properly 
so-called, each successive strip drops, and drops always the 
same distance. It does not jump up and down. The repeat 
in diagram 137 is really two strips wide ; it does not drop ; 
and there is no mechanical reason why the two flowers, any 
more than the stems (indicated in the lower part of it), 
should be repeated. 

The peacock feather tile (131) is not a regular drop 
pattern ; it drops in the second row two-thirds of its depth ; 
but in the third it starts afresh on a level with the first. 

The tile pattern above (140) is designed to drop regularly 
two-thirds of its depth, and would recover its level naturally 
in the fourth row, as would a pattern designed to drop only 
one-third of its depth. As a matter of fact, though it drops 
two-thirds if we work from left to right, from right to left 
it drops only one-third. That may read as if it were 
impossible, but if you work it out on paper you will rind 
it is so. 



THE " DROP " REPEAT 




141 " FALSE DROP " PATTERN 

Patterns of which diamonds, or equivalent ogee sha 
are the basis (141), have always an air of being drop pattei 




142 " FALSE DROP " PATTERN. 



120 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




143. FRET DESIGNED ON OGEE AND SQUARE LINES. 

but they do not really work on that plan unless the pattern in 
the diamonds or ogees also drops. But this sort of " false 
drop " plan is useful. The framework of severe lines steadies 
the ornament, which yet may be varied ; and there is perhaps 
a charm of unexpectedness in the result. One starts some- 
times with the idea of a drop pattern (142) which develops, 
nevertheless, into a pattern which works only on square lines. 
There is no harm in this, so long as it is not necessary that 
the pattern should step in the working which it may be. 

It has been shown how no new principle is involved in 
designing on waved lines. They are but another version of 
the straight-lined skeleton, and amount to the same thing, 
except that their curves give the designer a lead which he 
is often wise to take. 

Working upon the lines of the diamond, of which the ogee 
shape is the curvilinear equivalent, he would not so easily 
have arrived at the fret pattern (143) above. Starting with 
opposite wave lines, filling each ogee with a square, and 
just making pointed encroachments upon this, he arrived 
almost inevitably at what he did. 



THE " DROP " REPEAT 121 

Another very useful form of ' ' false drop ' ' is where the 
unit of design occupying, let us say, a diamond or ogee, is 
turned over m the dropping. A sprig pattern, for example, 
in which the sprigs are alternately reversed one row of 
flowers turning from left to right, the other from right to left 
may with advantage be planned on the diamond ; but the 
fact that the sprig in the diamond which drops is not a repeat 
of the first, but the reverse of it, removes it from the category 
of drop patterns proper. The unit is now the double diamond , 
and that no longer drops in repetition 

This may appear to the reader a mere verbal quibble not 
worth discussing , but it has a very practical bearing upon 
design. If, for example, the unit of design occupying 
diamond B in diagram 145 (see page 123) were reversed in 
diamond C, it would naturally be reversed also in the two 
quarters at a a, and would not join on to the half unit at A 
facing the same way as at B, and the pattern would not work. 

Every fresh skeleton plan is a boon to the designer ; for, 
working upon any fixed proportions (such as the conditions 
of any manufacture are sure to lay down for us), we fall in- 
evitably into certain grooves of design ; and all opportunity 
of varying them is to the good It is because they offer each 
its own particular lines of construction (by which design 
cannot but be influenced) that it is worth the designer's 
while to puzzle over the various plans upon which pattern 
may possibly be built. 



!A 



K sj (NCHeS W 




144. 



DIAGRAMS SHOXVING DROP AND STkP RKPIiATS WITHIN THK 
WIDTH OF MATERIAL. 



XI SMALLER REPEATS 

Width of lepeat divisible into width of matenal Repeat t \vo-lhinls 01 
two-fifthb of \vidth oi inatcnal- Full width icpeat scorning smaller 
Variety in appaient uniformity -Weaveis' ways ol doing it Sanut 
principle applied to larger design -Method and haphazard Moje < om- 
plicated system Othct plans fox disguising pieeisc oidiu ol small 
lepcatb. 

As a rule, the designer is anxious to gel the most out of the 
space he has to deal with. The use of the drop, it has been 
explained, enables him to go even beyond the width of his 
material. But it is not always that he wants the whole width 
allowed There are reasons of economy and use (economy of 
design no less than of manufacture) winch make it necessary 
at times, and especially in certain classes of design, that 
several repeats of the design should occur in the width of the 
stuff. If the repeat is on horizontal line's it must clearly bo 
contained exactly twice, or three, or four, or more times, in 
the width ; otherwise, when the material comes to be joined 

122 



SMALLER REPEATS 



123 




145. DIAGRAM SHOWING PLAN OF DROP REPEAT TWO-THIRDS OF 
THE WIDTH OF MATERIAL. 

up, the design will not match, without cutting the stuff to 
waste. 

A drop-repeat within the width of the material does not, 
it should be mentioned, entail a corresponding drop in 
joining or hanging Suppose the material in diagram A 
(144) to be wallpaper 21 inches wide, and the repeat to be 
only 7 inches wide, and drop just a third or two-thirds of 
its length In that case the paper will hang not as a drop 




C V* 



146. DIAGRAM SHOWING PLAN OF DROP REPEAT TWO-FIFTHS OF THE 
WIDTH OF THE MATERIAL 



124 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




147. DROP DESIGN SCHFMKI) ON A DIAMOND TWO-THIRDS OF THK 
WIDTH OF THE MATERIAL, 



SMALLER REPEATS 125 

hut on level lines. The step pattern B, on the other hand, 
which recovers itself after the first repeat, will hang in 
corresponding fashion, dropping in one strip 7 inches, and 
in the next recovering itself again. 

The " drop " offers yet further possibilities in design, 
and makes possible a repeat measuring, not merely a half, 
a third, a quarter, but two-thirds of the width of the material, 
or two-fifths of it, or two-sevenths, and so forth. 

If, as in diagrams 145 and 146, you divide the area of 
possible repeat vertically into three, or into five, a pattern 
designed on a diamond the width of two divisions will work 
as a drop. All that is necessary is that the half diamond A 
on the one side and the two quarter diamonds a a on the 
other should join on. They form, in fact, together the unit 
of the repeating pattern supposing, that is to say, diamonds 
A, B, C in the one case (145), and A, B, C, D, E in the other 
(146), to be filled in the same way. 

The design (147) on page 124 shows a 2i-mch material 
of which the design is schemed on a diamond 14 inches by 
21 inches. 

Ceiling pattern 148 works on a similar plan ; but, as it 
happens to turn over within the diamond, it works also as a 
drop repeat 7 inches wide by 14 inches long. The block 
from which it is printed measures 21 inches by 14 inches. 

The repeat, however, in such patterns is not dependent 
upon the filling of the diamonds all alike. So long as in 
diagram 145 the half diamond A and the two quarter 
diamonds a a make one complete diamond, and the two half 
diamonds C C another, the three diamonds (A, B, and C) may 
be occupied each with a separate figure. The design (149) on 
page 127 is planned upon the system of diamond divisions 
measuring two-thirds the width of the material. The 
diamonds (A), of which only half would occur in the width 
of the stuff, are occupied by sprays of foliage, and through 
the zig-zag space (B) between (equivalent to the other two 
diamonds) winds a separate growth. 



126 



PATTERN DESIGN 



There are many occasions on which it is advisable to 
reduce pattern to a scale far less than the mechanical con- 



7 in 




148 DROP REPEAT 7 INCHES BY 14 INCHES PRINTED FROM A BLOCK 
21 INCHES BY 14 INCHES 

ditions would allow In that case it may nevertheless be 
well to take advantage of those conditions in order to get 



SMALLER REPEATS 



127 



variety, which, though not perhaps immediately apparent, 
is always pleasing when it is discovered. What is in effect 
quite a small repeat may, in point of fact, occupy the full 
width of a wide material. 

An expedient that is often useful is to set out the lines of 
your pattern as if for a small repeat, and within those lines 
allow yourself all possible liberty. For example, you may 
devise a small sprig pattern, and then amuse yourself by 
playing variations upon it, so as to suggest perhaps, even in 
mechanically produced pattern, something of the freedom of 
handiwork at all events avoiding the mechanical effect of 
too obvious repetition. In the Byzantine piercing (150) 
on page 128 a pattern of interlacing bands is diversified by 
filling the geometric spaces with sprigs as it were accidentally 




. . 

4- Width ofYXoterial ^ 






149. DIAGRAM OF DROP REPEAT ON DIAMOND LINES, THE DIAMONDS 
NOT FILLED ALL IN THE SAME WAY. 



128 



PATTERN DESIGN 







150 BYZANTINE PIERCED WORK WITH GEOMETRIC DIVISIONS 
ENCLOSING ORNAMENT WHICH DOES NOT REPEAT 



dispersed. In this particular instance the foliated ornament 
does not repeat at all. But it might very well have done 
so. There are, however, two dangers in playing any little 
game like this ; the one, that you may get confused as to 
the particular units which must join , and the other that, 
failing system in the variation, the changes may be sufficient 
to throw the design out of balance, and allow certain units 
to assert themselves detrimentally It is consequently well 
worth the pains of any one engaged in designing small 
repeats to work out the various plans upon which sprays 
and so forth may be schemed, so as not to recur quite 
obviously, and yet to fall surely into satisfactory lines. 

Weavers have, in fact, perfected a system by which the 
danger of apparent lines in small repeats is minimised. 
Some of these arrangements* give, it will be seen, diagonal 
lines, others afford a ready means of avoiding them. 

How they arose out of the necessities of weaving is not 

* " Sateens " they are technically called. 



SMALLER REPEATS. 



129 




<3 



151. DIAGRAM OF THREE-SPOT 
REPEAT 




152 DIAGRAM OF FOUR-SPOT 
REPEAT. 



here the question. Nor is it necessary to go into the matter 
of "ends," "counts," "picks," "treads," and other 
technicalities familiar enough to the expert in weaving, and 
to those who are not, more puzzling than explanatory. 
But, as they may be helpful to designers of no matter what 

6 C> : 

<o <o 

a : & ; 

* 3 
_G> < G> 

& A & " & ' &. 

D ^ * : O <V ' <0 

<3 <3 & : A ^) 



A 


^ 


4 





>' 


V 


< 


G 


A 


*V 


^> 


A 


l 





* : " , 



V 



CP 



153. DIAGRAMS OF FIVE-SPOT REPEAT. 



130 



PATTERN DESIGN. 



kind of pattern so long as it repeats, it is worth while giving 
them for what they may be worth. 

The designer begins by dividing his repeat into squares 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 each way, as shown in the corner of each 
diagram. He has then to occupy 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of these 
squares in such a way that m any row of squares, from top 
to bottom or from side to side, one of them, and one only, 
is inhabited. 




(b 



154- DIAGRAM OF SIX-SPOT REPEAT. 

How this works out in the repeat whether it takes a 
stripe or not, and what stripe, is shown by the repetition of 
this group of squares in outline. 

In the diagrams, the heart-shapes, it will be seen, face 
all ways about, to show how, at the option of the artist, the 
spray or whatever it happens to be may be varied. 

The application of such a principle as this to design on a 
comparatively large scale as in the ceiling paper on page 133 



SMALLER REPEATS 



131 



A <2> 

9 ' T 

C O 

<2 <3 

A [ 

A| A 

V 

Ob 

r ":" "!"":"": JC> 

ft> G> 
C? JO '.(?. 

ISS, 156. DIAGRAMS OF SEVEN-SPOT REPEAT. 



132 



PATTERN DESIGN 



6 







c> 



<3 



157, 158. DIAGRAMS OF EIGHT-SPOT REPEAT. 



SMALLER REPEATS. 



133 




159. CEILING PATTERN DESIGNED ON THE PLAN OF SIX-SPOT 

REPEAT. 



134 



PATTERN DESIGN. 



is explained by the diagrams which follow (160). In the first 
is shown the occupation of six squares by forms not yet care- 
fully considered. In the second these begin to take leaf 
shape extending somewhat beyond the boundary lines. With 
the more careful drawing of these leaves and the breaking 
of them up into feathery composite foliage, the design takes 
its final shape. 

A further application of the idea is shown in yet another 
diagram (161) in which only the main features of the design 
are distributed systematically. The position of such heavier 



'Q 



LL. 



.. 




l6o, DIAGRAMS SHOWING EVOLUTION OF PATTERN NO. 1 59 



and more emphatic masses determined, it is safe to sketch 
in the more delicate connecting scrollwork quite freely. 

Similarly the squares (one in each row) may be reserved, 
not for the pattern, but as spaces free from ornament (162), 
places of rest, where the eye can appreciate the quality of 
plain material. The diagram insists, for emphasis* sake, 
upon the squareness of the spaces left, but in a finished design 
the scaffolding lines would, of course, not be there. 

An alternative to the more systematic manner and one 
which appeals to the ungovernable frame of artistic mind 
is to begin with sprays, or whatever they may be, on the 
margin of the repeat, and work gradually to the centre, 



SMALLER REPEATS 



135 




l6l. DIAGRAM SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF FLOWERS ONLY ON THE 
PLAN. OF A SIX-SPOT REPEAT 

trusting to the guidance of artistic instinct. That seems, 
perhaps, the readiest way ; but it is in the end the longest 
if ever it leads to anything but disappointment. 

The full possibilities of the systematic principle are in- 
dicated in the last of this series of diagrams (163), designed 
to show the successive stages by which, first, six of the 
squares are occupied with leaf forms ; then, in a similar way, 
six other squares with spirals ; then others in succession with 
flowers, stars and butterflies. The result is not a pleasing 
pattern that was not aimed at but an unmistakable chart 



136 



PATTERN DESIGN 




162. DIAGRAM SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF OPEN SPACES IN THE 
GROUND ON THE PLAN OF A FIVE-SPOT REPEAT. 

of the steps by which the designer may proceed to fill out 
his design. It should be useful also as an indication of the 
way in which, employing always the same or similar sprays 
or whatever they may be throughout his design, he may vary 
their colour. Let the five features represent five tones of 
colour, and the monotony of a single spray of ornament 
would be vastly relieved. Let the sprays be further slightly 
(more or less accidentally) varied in design, and an element 
of mystery would be introduced which seldom fails to add 
to the charm of pattern. 



SMALLER REPEATS. 



137 



Two other plans upon which sprays, &c., may con- 
veniently be distributed are worth showing (diagram 164). 

Mark on the sides of a square central points, and from 
these to the corners draw parallel lines obliquely across. 
That will give you a centre square and eight parts of corre- 
sponding squares. Complete the four squares which want 
least to make them perfect, and you will have a cruciform 
unit of five divisions, no one of which is in a vertical or 
horizontal line with another. 

Or, again, mark on the sides of a square two points a and 
6 9 dividing them into three equal parts, and from a draw 
oblique lines to the corners, and from b to 6 lines parallel 
with them. That will give you four complete squares and 
twelve portions of corresponding squares Complete as in 
the last case, the four of these which are most nearly perfect, 
and two of the half squares not opposite one to the other, and 
you will have a unit of ten divisions no one of which is in a 



.!. .I...].. 










< 



_ i JtU 



163. DIAGRAM SHOWING FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRINCIPLE 
OF DISTRIBUTION ALREADY EXPLAINED. 



138 



PATTERN DESIGN 




164. DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING ANOTHER PRINCIPLE ON WHIC II 
SPOTS MAY BE DISTRIBUTED. 

vertical or horizontal line with another. The result is in 
either case a square lattice askew. It is shown in the 
diagrams above both in repeat and in relation to the width 
of the material 

Any pattern occupying these squares would, if it followed 
the slope of the lattice, take slanting lines, and little or 
nothing would be gained. But in an upright spray, more 
especially if there were in it a marked vertical line, as, for 
example, in a fleur de lis, the upright tendency of the diaper 
would contrast with the lines of the plan, and the order of 
repetition would not be too apparent. Remove the trellis of 
scaffolding and it would take one some time to make out the 
precise order in which the diaper was sprinkled about. 

The value of systems like these is just that. It makes 
the order of an obvious repeat less obvious. 



XII. SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 

Importance of variety of plan Area of pattern not confined to area of 
repeat Excursions compensated by incursions Lines thus disguised 
Wave-lines, turned over, result in ogee Wave-lines result from 
working within narrow upright lines Uprightness of narrow repeats 
counteracted by lines across Diagonal wave-lines to connect features 
forming horizontal band Designs obviously based upon slanting and 
horizontal lines Wave-line from side to side of broad repeat Scaffold- 
ing of an old Louis XVI pattern 

INEVITABLY as repeated patterns fall into the lines of the 
square, the diamond, or perhaps the triangle, those were not 
by any means invariably the lines on which the designer set 
to work. Reference has been already made to some possible 
scaffoldings ; others remain for consideration ; and, in view 
of the vital way the lines on which a man works influence his 
design (one plan suggesting what another does not so much 
as allow), it is important that he should have the widest 
possible base of operations. 

Beginners, by the way, seem always to be unnecessarily 
bothered by the shape of their repeat square, oblong, 
diamond, or whatever it may be. I have seen it somewhere 
stated, for their guidance, that they need not confine the 
lines of their design to it. Indeed they need not. It would 
be safe to say that, except in mere diaper, they must on no 
account do so. If they do, the line*of the repeat, not crossed 
by ornament at all, will assert itself, very probably in a way 
that is anything but desirable. 

A marked vertical line results from keeping the pattern 

139 




1 65 TURNOVER PATTERN, REVEALING THE VERTICAL LINK ON 

WTTTPM TT TQ ttPVWDfiim 




1 66. DESIGN ALMOST BUT NOT QUITE SELF-CONTAINED WITHIN 
THE WIDTH OF THE STUFF 



142 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




167. DIAGRAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF 
COUNTERCHANGE PATTERNS. 

entirely within the width of the repeat (165). In textile 
design it is sometimes thought advisable purposely to confine 
the pattern in this way, so that it may have the appearance 
of completeness when made up in furniture or upholstery. 
The tapestry design (166) is arranged so that, when so em- 
ployed, it will have the effect of a purposely designed panel. 
As a rule it is expedient, even where the design is mainly 
contained within the width of the stuff, to block the gap in 
the ground which would occur where two strips join by 
carrying comparatively insignificant, but sufficiently sub- 
stantial, portions of the pattern across it. 




1 68. ALHAMBRESQUE COUNTERCHANGE PATTERN CONSTRUCTED 
ON THE LINES OF DIAGRAM 167 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS 




169 DIAGRAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF 
RIBBON AND FEATHER PATTERN, DIAGRAM iyo 

A test by which to judge the competence of a pattern- 
designer is the way he manages to give you in his designs 
features extending far beyond the limits of his repeat, 




170. RIBBON AND FEATHER PATTERN CONSTRUCTED ON LINES OF 
DIAGRAM 169. 



144 



PATTERN DESIGN 




171. LATE GOTHIC VELVET PATTERN. 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 



145 




172 



PATTERN IN WHICH WAVE-LINES DIVERT THE EYE FROM 
VERTICAL. 



obtaining by that means a bolder scale and a freer line than 
are otherwise to be got. There is no great art in thus exceed- 
ing the limits of the repeat. One has only to remember 
that excess on one side of it must be compensated on the 
other. It is a question of addition and subtraction. 

This is very plainly shown in those geometric patterns of 
which the scaffolding forms part of the design. 

Given a chequer of black and white, any inroad of 
the black into the white has only to be followed by a 



I 4 6 



PATTERN DESIGN 



tte 





173 DIAGRAM OF SCAFFOLDING AND THE LINES OF A PATTKRN 
RESULTING FROM IT. 




174. ANOTHER PATTERN BUILT ON THK SAMK LINKS AS 173. 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 



H7 




175. OLD DUTCH PRINT. 

corresponding inroad of the white into the black, and you 
have a well-balanced pattern. 

That explains itself at a glance in diagram 167. But more 
intricate-looking patterns come about in precisely the same 



148 



PATTERN DESIGN 



way. The inroads of the black into the white diamonds at A 
have only to be compensated by identical incursions of the 
white into the black diamonds at B, and you have the unit 
which gives the very satisfactory counterchange (168) at the 
bottom of page 142. The two (black) bites out of one square 
are paid for by two (white) bites out of the other. 

Practically the only way to avoid the lines of open space 
which result from keeping the unit of design within the lines 
of the repeat is, to cover so little of the ground with it, to 
leave so much space about it, that it resolves itself into some 
sort of a sprig or spot pattern. 

They may be disguised by designing within, not squares 
or diamonds, but some such broken geometric scaffolding as 
would be given by, say, four of the shapes in diagram 1 68 
(which would themselves repeat on the lines of the diamond) 







176. CRETAN WOVEN PATTERN. 




177- PATTERN IN WHICH THE HORIZONTAL LINE IS DELIBERATELY 

MARKED. 
' K 



ISO 



PATTERN DESIGN 




178. PATTERN FOUNDED ON OGEE, 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS 



or within some equally broken but less regular shape. For 
my own part, I have never thought that worth doing. It 
might, however, be worth while to design a narrow flowing 
pattern, in which it was desired to avoid anything like a 
vertical direction within the lines of a zig-zag (169) or of the 
slanting " herringbone " (169) which results from continuing 
the diagonal lines until they meet at right angles. It is long 
unbroken lines in one direction which are so apt to assert 
themselves. 

In an old Italian velvet (170) the above-mentioned dia- 
gonal brick lines have been adopted as the plan of a peacock's 
feather pattern tied together by ribbons, which mark, not 
precisely the brick, but a flowing-lined variant upon it. 

A vast number of excellent patterns have been frankly 
built upon the ogee, which curved variety of the diamond 
seems, wherever it is employed, to command acknow- 
ledgment. Pattern 178 is an instance. The foundation 
of the design is an interlacing ogee net, the lines of which 
determine the stems. The procedure was to arrange the 
balance of the leaves and flowers of the dominant growth ; 
the detail of the subsidiary growth was an after consideration, 
and occupies the spaces left in the earlier arrangement. 

The late Gothic patterns of which that on page 144 is a 
type, seem to be the result of simply opening out an ogee 







; V, *S j x*X/ V ! w/ ;^>jC/ ; 

I N N M N 






!V>jc/!Vj,ViU[*y;uj*/* 

INN Si N 




179. DIAGRAMS OF SCAFFOLDINGS, 



152 



PATTERN DESIGN 




1 80 SILK BROCADE ON THE LINES OF DIAGRAM 1796. 

pattern, dropping the ogee shapes, that is to say, some dis- 
tance apart, so as to give zig-zag bands between. These are 
still to be traced in the design illustrated, though the ogee 
shapes are no longer intact. 

Not every pattern in which the ogee occurs, was neces- 
sarily designed upon its lines. One may start with a scroll, 
and the turning over of the wave-lines gives at once the ogee. 

The wave-line itself comes (though it may seem like a 
contradiction in terms to say so) of working upon narrow 
upright lines, or between them. There is no readier means 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 



153 




l8l SIXTEENTH-CENTURY VELVET ON THE LINES OF DIAGRAM C. 



154 PATTERN DESIGN. 

of counteracting the too upright tendency of a long narrow 
repeat than by lines or bands waving from side to side of 
the confined space. 

Even when the space is not narrow, as in the design (172) 
on page 145, it may be convenient to anticipate any possibility 
of vertical lines by carrying the eye alternately from left to 
right and from right to left. 

A scaffolding which leads to new developments in design 
is to be got by means of a trellis which divides the rect- 
angular area of repeat into six parts, grouping them as (173) 
on page 146. If these lines are repeated a broad space 
reveals itself between the smaller oblongs which, when it 
comes to occupying it with pattern, results almost inevitably 
in a wave-line as does the zig-zag chain of parallelograms 
between. 

Yet another diagram (174) on the same lines shows that 
even when the square lines of the plan are insisted upon, 
something like wave-lines result. 

Another obvious means of counteracting the uprightness 
of very narrow repeats is to cross the upright lines, and 
perhaps the waved lines within them, by features which give 
a pronounced band either in the horizontal or in the diagonal 
direction. The tendency of the narrow turnover in the Dutch 
print (175) on page 147 is effectually overcome by the pro- 
nounced horizontal line of birds, though the direction of the 
stalks into which they develop helps also in the same 
way. 

In the Cretan weaving (176) on page 148, though the wave- 
lines are not actually broken by the flowers, they form in 
repetition compact bands, which go far to stop their upward 
tendency. One seems to read in that case very plainly the 
genesis of the design a narrow repeat dictated by the loom ; 
wave-lines, to take from its straightness ; emphatic bands 
of flowers, to stop the upward direction of the pattern ; and 
further breaks in the colour of the wave-lines, with the same 
object. The plan might be described as a trellis consisting 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 



155 



of upright wave-lines and straight lines crossing them 
horizontally. 

It is true that horizontal lines of the kind here shown 
result, whether the designer will or no, from the repetition of 
any feature which nearly takes up the full width of the repeat, 
It was very likely that which gave the hint to weavers ; but 
they were not slow to take it, and to turn it to very deliberate 
and constant use. 

No designer will doubt for a moment that the long leaves 
in the pattern (177) on page 149 are an artifice by which to 
stop the flow of blossom and sprays, and to steady the effect. 

A natural thing to do in a narrow turnover pattern (with 
a view to interrupting its straight-up direction) is to plant, 




182. PATTERN IN WHICH THE STARTING-POINT WAS A DIAGONAL 

WAVE. 



1 5 6 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




183. MODERN DESIGN FOR CRETONNE, PLANNED ON DIAGRAM I79B, 
IN WHICH THE LENGTH OF STEMS IS MODIFIED BY CROSSING 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 



157 




184. FIFTEENTH-CENTURY PATTERN AND ITS SCAFFOLDING 



I 5 8 



PATTERN DESIGN, 



as in diagram A, 179, a prominent feature, occupying nearly, 
if not quite, the full width of the stuff, alternately in the 
centre of the strip and centring with the joint between the 
two strips. (This applies, of course, just as much to the 
repeats which recur several times in a single width of the 
material.) 

Diagram B (179) brings us to something like the plan of 







185 SICILIAN SILK PATTERN AND ITS SCAFFOLDING. 

the fifteenth-century pattern (180) on page 152, and may be 
resolved into a diamond scaffolding. But, if the strips or the 
repeats are narrow, and there is a fair amount of space 
between the alternate bands of features, flowers let us call 
them, any lattice of stalks connecting them, whether on 
diamond or ogee lines, would be too long-drawn-out for 
beauty. A sirigle line from flower to flower would be much 
more satisfactoryfrom which results (whether we mean it 
or not) a diagonal stripe more or less ingeniously to be 
disguised as in the fifteenth-century silk on page 152. 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 



159 




186. PLAN OF A FRENCH DESIGN OF THE LOUIS SEIZE PERIOD. 



160 PATTERN DESIGN 

In the design for cretonne (183), the diagonal direction 
is not so marked, the balance being preserved by branches in 
the opposite direction This is a modern design, planned on 
179, diagram B, in which the length of the stems is modified 
by crossing. 

Diagram C (179) explains the genesis of some of the most 
sumptuous patterns of sixteenth-century brocaded velvets 
(181). Their starting-pomt seems to have been a huge con- 
ventional flower or pine-apple, occupying nearly, if not quite, 
the entire Afaidth of the material, recurring, of course, at 
intervals, with one broad waving stem from flower to flower, 
not, it is clear, running behind the flowers in a continuous 
sweep, but appearing rather to stop' against the flower below 
it : at all events the flow of the line is not continuous The 
puzzling thing at first about these handsome patterns is that 
you don't follow the logic of the design. I am inclined to 
think there is none ; that the designer did not bother himself 
about the repeat , that he trusted to the bigness of the pattern, 
the sequence of which one can seldom see, and takes too 
readily for granted. 

In the pattern (182) on page 15 5, it is clear that the start 
was a diagonal line waving gaily from corner to corner of 
the repeat, and that the sprays of flowers were put there to 
steady the effect. For the diagonal stripe came at an early 
date not merely to be accepted but to be insisted upon as an 
acceptable feature in design which to unprejudiced eyes it 
still is. 

There seems to me no room for doubt that patterns such 
as that (184) on page 157 were deliberately planned on the 
horizontal and slanting lines indicated in the lower part of 
the diagram ; or that the Sicilian silk (185) was built up on 
the same sort of scaffolding. 

The scaffolding of a design by a French designer of the 
period of Louis Seize (186) is interesting and instructive. 
The heavier of the vertical lines give the width of the material 
(rather more than two widths are shown), the finer of them 



SUNDRY SCAFFOLDINGS. 161 

stand for the pencil marks which the artist ruled for his 
guidance. The horizontal help-lines mark the length of the 
repeat and its subdivision into four parts, two of which give 
the drop. It will be seen that he has divided the width of 
the material also into four parts, two of which (2 and 3) are 
reserved for the central features of the design, whilst the 
other two (i and 4) confine the hanging wreaths (which frame 
the central features) within easily manageable areas. It is 
plain that the scaffolding lines assist him in carrying these 
wreaths from one width of the material to the other. You 
feel, in fact, that without this scaffolding he would not easily 
have arrived at a composition which even those who have no 
sympathy with the style of it must admit to be exceptionally 
graceful. 

It is well worth while working out for oneself plans of this 
kind, as a means of compelling the invention out of the ruts 
sure to be worn by continually working on the same lines. 



^ 




187 DIAGRAM SHOWING SQUARE REPEAT WHICH TURNS ROUND 



XIII. THE TURN-ROUND. 

Unit of design may be turned part way round Unit of 6 by 6 inches 
results in repeat of 12 by 12 inches Works eithei on the straight or as a 
drop For radiating pattern a triangle half the size of smaller square 
suffices for unit Fold and fold again Arab lattice pattern dissected. 

IN designing for tiles and such like, the condition of con- 
tinuity obvious in the case of woven pattern no longer exists, 
and possibilities occur which are denied to the weaver. The 
repeat of a 6-mch tile, or of the two or more 6-inch tiles 
which go to make the complete pattern, need no longer be 
always in the one direction. The designer is free to devise 
a unit which has to be turned completely round in repetition, 
or half-way round, or three-quarters of the way; he can, 
consequently, out of a 6-inch unit get a design which will not 
repeat on a straightforward trellis in less than four times 
its area. 

In this'way the repeats above (187), supposing them to be 
12 inches square, could be got out of a unit only 6 inches 

162 



THE TURN-ROUND 



163 




1 88. DIAGRAM SHOWING SQUARE REPEAT WHICH TURNS ROUND 
AND DROPS. 

square, provided it could be turned round (as a tile could be) 
in the way above described. 

In the case of a pattern repeating on horizontal lines, the 
design might extend (187) beyond the lines of the repeat. In 
the case of one that stepped (188), it would be necessary to 
keep within the four square lines. 

If that were so, the pattern could without difficulty be 
schemed to work, not only as a drop, but on the straight 
also; and, as a matter of practice, many tile patterns are 
so designed. 

In a tile pattern such as that (189) overleaf, which radiates 
instead of following round, assuming the squares to measure 
6 inches, and the pattern 12 inches across, the unit of repeat 
(except for the interlacing of the lines, which is no part of 
its construction) reduces itself to a triangle half the size of 
the square or rather, that being itself a " turnover " again, 
to one a quarter of its size. 

The building up of such a repeat on diamond lines is on 
the face of it apparent. 

It is an Eastern practice (I have been told by Sir Caspar 
Purdon Clarke) to design on the lines of a sheet of paper 
folded in parallel lines, and folded again in lines at right 



i6 4 



PATTERN DESIGN 



angles to those, and then again in the diagonal direction a 
practice which one ought almost to have divined from the 
nature of the patterns resulting from it. 

The Arab lattice opposite (190) is just such a pattern. Or 
it might be built (on the lines very similar to those shown in 
diagram 38) of octagons, the centre of which is marked C, and 
four pointed stars, of which the centre is marked by four dots , 
or on the zig-zag lines which give those shapes. It repeats 
also on the lines of a rectangular diamond, the points of 
which occur at C ; or of a parallelogram A B which drops 
half its length ; and as A is only the reverse of B it works 




189. TURN-ROUND PATTERN. 



THE TURN-ROUND 



165 







A 

N 


B \ 

\ 

7V- 

>" \ 


B 
...-/?'"""" 
; t 


_'\/ 

^f^ 

/ \ : 


' A / ' 


' \ 

W 


A / 


-*-. 


; ' . - ' 



190. ARAB LATTICE AND THE LINES INTO WHICH IT MAY BE 
RESOLVED. 



1 66 PATTERN DESIGN 

also as a turnover pattern. Further than that, B is actually 
the same unit as A, merely turned part way round until what 
in A was the top is in B the side of the square. The design 
would therefore work as a square tile of the dimensions of A. 

Patterns of somewhat similar construction, even more 
plainly to be set out upon the lines given by folding and 
folding again, are shown on pages 49, 51, and 52, all of them 
typical Arab lattices. 

The Persian carpet shown in the frontispiece is an 
interesting example, in which the centre portion with its 
pairs of opposed peacocks has complete double symmetry. 
The filling outside has also both lateral and vertical sym- 
metry, while the border with its peacocks and crocodiles 
repeats continuously. 




191. WOULD-BE FREE PATTERN FALLING INTO THE LINES 
OF THE BRICK REPEAT 



XIV. HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 

Free patterns planned on formal lines Features recur at intervals 
determined by unit of repeat Planning the only way to avoid unforeseen 
effects Means of disguising formal lines Necessity for system Genesis 
of counterchange border of geometric diaper How not to do it 
Detail not to be determined too soon Genesis of conventional floral 
pattern starting with the masses of a drop pattern of a pattern 
starting with line of a floral pattern starting with distribution of 
flowers of a velvet pattern starting with severe lines " Inhabited " 
pattern Evolution of Italian arabesque pilaster Animal form in pattern 
Starting at a venture and from an idea Afterthoughts. 

GEOMETRIC patterns have, as a rule, much less reticence in 
exposing the lines of their construction than others. You see 
more plainly in them the various plans of construction upon 
which such stress has been laid. The freest and loosest of 
patterns will be found, however, to repeat as geometrically as 
the severest, and on precisely the same lines : it is for that 
reason so much stress has been laid upon geometry A 
flowing pattern does not flow so freely as might be supposed. 

167 



1 68 



PATTERN DESIGN 



Mark any recurrent feature in it and four such features will 
give you points from which may be drawn the four straight 
lines which mark the square, or parallelogram, or diamond, 
upon which the repeat works. It may be doubted whether 
the quasi-pictorial French wall-paper (191) on page 167 was 
planned upon the lines of the brick,* but it falls into them, 
and the masts of the ships practically give the vertical 
divisions of the plan 

Each and every feature in a design recurs at intervals 
determined by the proportions of its unit. Let your unit be 
a square, for example (192), and, in a cluster of four squares, 
any given detail will mark by its recurrence the proportion 





r 



192 DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW RECURRING FEATURE MARKS THE 
PLAN OF A PATTERN. 

of the square, no matter whereabouts in the square it may 
occur. The diagrams above show this 

The recurrence of the details of the pattern is a certainty. 
It is as well to make certain of the sequence in which they 
shall recur. Any reliance upon haphazard at the beginning 
is sure to give trouble in the end Happy-go-lucky arrange- 
ments seldom work out happily ; there is no reason why they 
should. 

A painter may, and often does, go jauntily about his work 
and put in a diaper upon a screen behind his figures without 
taking the pains to plan it , but the further he goes the wider 
he gets of accuracy, and the more plainly his carelessness is 
revealed. In the diaper opposite (193), for example, the 
" repeat " does not repeat. This matters nothing in a 
painting. It even gives the painter an opportunity of 
* See page 112. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 



169 



adapting the pattern to his pictorial needs. In a design 
for practical purposes it would matter everything. It 
would be, in fact, not a design but only a suggestion 
for one 

A designer, like other 
artists, trusts largely to his 
instinct ; and rightly relies 
upon it for artistic prompt- 
ing throughout his work ; 
but it will not supply the 
place of order, to which in 
the nature of things he is 
pledged. He is free only 
within the hmits of his 
repeat practically a right- 
angled space, or a diamond 
of given dimensions. 

Suppose it to be a 
square. Within the four 
sides of that he may do as 
he likes. He may sprinkle 
sprigs about in the most 
admired disorder. There 
may be no more geometric 
relation between them than 
between the six black spots 
in the central square over- 
leaf (194) ; but, where there 
is no geometric relation 
between the members of 

the group, it is not easy to anticipate, as a designer should, 
what will be the effect of the group itself when it comes to 
be repeated. It will be seen that in repetition the spots fall 
into irregular lines with awkward gaps between just the 
kind of line which comes by accident, and might easily 
have been avoided by careful contrivance (see page 5). 




193 PAINTED GOTHIC DIAPER IN 

WHICH THE " REPEAT " DOES 

NOT WORK 



170 



PATTERN DESIGN 



For want of more systematic planning the pretty damask 
pattern opposite (195) falls into stripes which, it seems to me, 
the artist did not foresee. They are comparatively harmless 
there and would be equally so in a table damask but in 
a wall pattern, for example, they might assume distressing 
prominence. 

A stripe is by no means necessarily to be avoided in 
design and it is in obedience rather to the prejudices of a 
timid public than to their own artistic instinct that designers 
avoid frank lines. Artists know how useful they are. But 
they should be the lines that play their part in the pattern ; 
and, to do that, they must be well considered ; not left to 
chance : the chances are all against a happy fluke. One way 
out of the difficulty is boldly to insist upon the stripe and 
make a feature of it. Another is to cover the ground with 
uniform pattern in which is no break and no feature more 



T 94 DIAGRAM SHOWING GEOMETRIC RECURRENCE OF FEATURES 

NOT GEOMETRICALLY DISTRIBUTED 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 




195. OLD LINEN DAMASK PATTERN FALLING INTO STRIPES. 

prominent than another in the manner of the daisy pattern 
overleaf (i 96) and that is an exceedingly difficult thing to do . 
But the way to do it is, not gaily to scatter daisies about upon 
the paper, but to plan them (see page 130 et seq.}, and, even 
then, the uniform covering of the ground involves an amount 
of experiment and reconsideration, which is in itself enough 
to explain the comparative rarity of such patterns. Unpre- 
tending they may be ; but there are occasions when what is 
wanted is simplicity verging even upon insignificance, and 
where yet obvious geometric forms would not do. Hence 



172 



PATTERN DESIGN 



the need for all-overish ornament pattern which is meant 
to break a surface or a colour and not much more. Even 
then it is not a bad plan to introduce into it features such 
as the circular groups of flowers opposite (197), an d the little 
flowers in upright pairs between, which, though in a measure 
lost in the even distribution of detail, may be relied upon to 
assert themselves, if anything catches the eye at all ; and 
these are planned, of course, with a view to their effect in 
repetition. The difficulty and danger of design is lessened in 
a pattern in which there are such points of emphasis (however 







196. FEATURELESS " ALLOVER " PATTERN, 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



173 




197. FEATURES DISGUISED BUT NOT QUITE LOST IN 

EFFECT. 



' ALLOVER ; 



slight), features balanced one against the other, supporting 
it may be or counteracting one another, and yet producing 
an effect of even weight ; or in a pattern in which there are 
marked governing lines, whether symmetric and plainly 
revealed, as in illustration 198, or flowing as it were freely, 
and partly lost in scrollwork or leafage. To lose the lines 
of recurrence altogether, as in illustration 199, is not easy. 

Insistence upon the necessity of governing lines m pattern 
must not be taken to imply that they must always be insisted 
upon or that they may not assert themselves too strongly. 
There is a point at which they are an annoyance. 

It may be expedient to subdue them even to efface them 
at times. The necessary subjection may be eifected in various 
ways. They may be arbitrarily interrupted. They may be 
overpowered by detail, not perhaps very significant in itself. 
Two or more schemes of design may be interwoven, the one 



174 PATTERN DESIGN 

asserting itself here, the other there, and each calling attention 
from the other. The lines themselves may be so ingeniously 
interlaced that it is hard to disentangle them. Some of them 
may be traced merely in outline, hardly strong enough to hold 
its own against more substantial features, or in a colour 
having more affinity with the ground than with the ornament 
generally 

But the mosf usual way of disguising the skeleton is, 
taking the hint from nature, to clothe it with something in 
the way of foliation by which the bare constructional lines 
are as effectually hidden as the branches of a tree by its 
leaves. By this means the spirals of a scroll can be made 
to assert themselves as much or as little as occasion may 
demand. Only if the curves are not well considered it is 
hopeless to try and make up for that by foliation, to disguise 
bad lines by leafage. A broken-backed scroll betrays 
itself beneath it all. There is no disguising its native 
infirmity. Pattern is vertebrate , and in a scroll the spinal 
cord is very plainly pronounced. 

As to whether it is better to reveal or to disguise the 
construction of a pattern, to insist upon it or to call attention 
away from it, that is a question to be answered partly accord- 
ing to the temperament of the designer, partly by the circum- 
stances of the particular case. Either plan is best upon 
occasion. But it is a point upon which the artist should in 
every case make up his mind at once. He should know what 
he is going to do, and do it deliberately. 

Referring to the popular prejudice against anything like 
formality in design and especially against anything which 
" you can count, " as they say, the public has a right to call 
the tune it pays for, and will no doubt get what it wants. 
If it will have nothing of severity or restraint in pattern, 
so much the worse for design. If, however, any student of 
ornament should feel that way, so much the worse for him, 
or for his chances of success in this direction. His wiser 
course would be to turn his attention to some branch of art 




198 DESIGN IN WHICH MARKED GOVERNING LINES STEADY THE EFFECT. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



177 




199 WALL-PAPER PATTERN IN WHICH THE LINES OF RECURRENCE 
ARE PURPOSELY LOST. 

for which he has more aptitude : he lacks the instinct of 
pattern design. A wilful world will have its way. An artist 
should know that, in sacrificing everything in the nature of 
formality, we renounce much of the dignity which belongs 
to the best in whatever form of art. The finest of old pattern 



178 



PATTERN DESIGN. 



work is invariably formal and owes to formality something 
of its noble character. 

Apart from that, it simplifies, as was said above, the 
problem of design, to accept the recurrence in it of a feature 
more or less plainly marked. And it is not altogether a 
matter of choice. In any design not absolutely all-overish 
one feature, or some features, must be more emphatic than 
the rest. Over-emphasis is provided against by points of 
lesser emphasis, to balance them, and points of lesser weight 
again to balance these perhaps. By the careful balancing of 
parts, it is possible, if not easy, to draw oif attention from any 
formal plan. Indeed to such purpose has the art of hiding 
art been exercised in this respect, that the advocates of " go 
as you please," seeing in some good patterns no evidence of 
construction, are not to be persuaded that they were ever 
built upon a plan. They may take the word of a designer 
for it that they were 

The dress pattern below (200) is of the class called free. 
But it was as deliberately set out as if the geometric con- 




200. FREE " DRESS PATTERN DELIBERATELY PLANNED. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



179 



jtruction were conspicuous in it. If you detect no formal 
lines in it, it is not because the plant was allowed to trail as 
accident would have it there was nothing free and easy 
about its disposition but because the lines of growth were 
from the first schemed with a view to seeming freedom, and 
the details were so plotted as to divert attention from the 
system upon which they are distributed. The system is 
there. 

If you would avoid the unforeseen in your completed 
work and the unforeseen reveals itself often in the most 
unsatisfactory manner system is essential. 

A practical designer does not idly let the pencil in his 
hand meander about upon a sheet of paper, in the vague 
hope that something may come of it. He starts with a 
definite notion of some sort a happy thought, an image in 
his mind perhaps, or, if not that, the idea at least of the sort 
of thing he wants, the thought of certain lines or masses, or 
the combination of the two, which promise when repeated to 
make pattern. 

The lines upon which a design is planned need not, it 





201, 



DIAGRAMS SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF A " COUNTERCHANGE " 
BORDER PATTERN 



i8o 



PATTERN DESIGN 




202. GEOMETRIC DIAPER PLANNED AS IN DIAGRAMS BELOW 



A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 



L 



. 



B 





203 DIAGRAMS SHOWING STAGES IN THE DESIGN OF A GEOMETRIC 

DIAPER. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



181 











204 DIAGRAM SHOWING A FALSE START IN DESIGN. 

has been explained, form any part of the pattern. But, if 
they do, it is easier to trace the steps by which it came to its 
effect. 

Take the simplest of patterns, a border (201) in which the 
repetition is only in the horizontal direction, and begin with 
a wave line down its centre dividing it equally into two 
halves, the one white the other black (A). Following the lines 
of the wave on the one side, and of the margin on the other, 
we arrive in the simplest way at a sort ot double wave giving 
a white enclosure in the black space and a black one in the 
white (B). To turn these into flowers (c) and to give them 



i8o 



PATTERN DESIGN 




202. GEOMETRIC DIAPER PLANNED AS IN DIAGRAMS BELOW 



A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


8 


A 


B 


A 



^ 



N 



TH 



A 



LIU 



IN 



B 



I 4 
< 





203 DIAGRAMS SHOWING STAGES IN THE DESIGN OF A GEOMETRIC 

DIAPER. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



181 











204 DIAGRAM SHOWING A FALSE START IN DESIGN 

has been explained, form any part of the pattern. But, if 
they do, it is easier to trace the steps by which it came to its 
effect. 

Take the simplest of patterns, a border (201) in which the 
repetition is only in the horizontal direction, and begin with 
a wave line down its centre dividing it equally into two 
halves , the one white the other black (A) . Following the lines 
of the wave on the one side, and of the margin on the other, 
we arrive in the simplest way at a sort ot double wave giving 
a white enclosure in the black space and a black one in the 
white (B). To turn these into flowers (c) and to give them 



182 



PATTERN DESIGN 



stalks to connect them with the waved line is an obvious 
thing to do ; and so we arrive, almost before we know it, at a 
complete and consequent counterchange pattern. 

The genesis of a geometric diaper (202) is scarcely more 
difficult to trace. 

The initial idea worked out on page 180 (203) was a 
flooring pattern, planned upon the square therefore, or rather, 
as it happened, the double square working as a drop. The 
double square and the desirability of retaining the square 
form, suggest an equal-sided unit, merely turned about, to 
mark the double square, and (in the flooring) to prevent the 




20$ DIAGRAM SHOWING THE START Or A DESIGN 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 

* 




206 DIAGRAM SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF 205 

effect of lines in one direction. But though it was advisable 
to retain the square form it was not desirable that it should 
asaevt itself too prominently. The pronounced additions to 
square A in the second of the smaller diagrams (203) effectu- 
ally prevent any such danger; and, repeated in the cross 
direction in squares B, they give in the fourth diagram already 
a coherent pattern. But it is empty, and the proportion of 
light and dark is not what was wanted. A central disc of 
black upen the white puts that right, and the continuation of 
the curved lines in the direction of the disc does away with 
the disconnected look of the various parts. The completion 
M 



1 84 



PATTERN DESIGN 



of the design (202) is then only a matter of detail The square 
divisions are kept, and remain a feature in the design ; but 
attention is diverted from them by the wave-lines crossing 
the lattice, which give yet more emphatic features, and take 
the eye from them. 

One sets about the design of a pattern of which the lines 
of construction form no visible part in much the same way 
with a definite idea, and on definite lines, but never with any 
definite detail, such for example as a natural spray of flowers. 

Painters unpractised in design assume sometimes that 




207 DIAGRAM SHOWING START OF A DROP REPEAT. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



185 




208 DIAGRAM SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF 207. 

they have only to repeat at given intervals no matter what 
study from nature, and make good the connection between 
the repetitions of it, and the trick is done. It is not quite so 
easy as that. Let any one try and connect the isolated details 
(204) on page 181. 

The natural lines of a flower, determined by no thought 
of repetition, are scarcely likely to bear repetition very well, 
and the difficulty of working up to nature, and comprehend- 
ing such naturalistic details in any satisfactory scheme of 



186 



PATTERN DESIGN 




WALL-PAPER PATTERN 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 187 

composition, is extreme. If anything results that way which 
goes for ornament, it is by accident and not design. Em- 
phatically that is not the way to set about it. A designer 
makes his flowers grow his way. 

He starts, never with detail but with one or other of the 
two important factors in design, line or mass whichever, 
according to his aim, naturally takes precedence. In the case 
of a scroll, he will first get right the sweep of the lines, before 
beginning to clothe them , in the case of a floral pattern, he 
will more likely dispose his flower masses in the order in 
which they should come, leaving lines of growth and foliage 
for after-consideration. 

It must not be supposed that defects of construction are 
to be made good by clothing or disguised by foliage. No one 
worth deceiving is deceived that way ; and any one disposed 
to scamp preliminary work should know that in the end it 
does not even save labour. Starting with the idea of a 
symmetrical design in which the flowers and buds shall be 
the prominent features the designer starts naturally with 
what he desires should first be seen he begins by planting* 
somewhere about the centre of the repeat, say, a heart-shaped 
mass (i ) diagram 205 . That perhaps suggests to him at either 
side a smaller bud-shape (2), near enough to the margin to 
group with its repeat, and so be useful in taking the eye from 
the joint, designed to balance the heart-shape, but not com- 
pete with it in mass. These forms repeated suggest, as a 
means of breaking the plain space below, features of inter- 
mediate size and different shape from either (3). A still 
remaining vacant space or belt of ground between these and 
the heart-shape below, determines the introduction of a pair 
of smaller buds (4), which in repetition give groups of four, 
valuable if only for variety's sake. A space of still too open 
ground suggests additional budlets (5), far enough apart to 
appear singly in contrast to the pairs about them. These 
points of interest determined indicate of themselves the 
lines to connect, correct and counteract them. The order 



r88 



PATTERN DESIGN 



in which they successively occurred is given by the letters 
A B C D. 

The designer may or may not, in planting such features 
on the ground, have somewhere at the back of his mind 

an idea as to the way they 
shall eventually be con- 
nected ; but the connecting 
lines must in the end be de- 
termined by the necessity of 
accounting for those masses 
as they stand. Supposing 
them to be flowers, they 
must grow in some coherent 
way. Lines and masses once 
determined, the next pro- 
cess is to give them more 
specific shape, and to 
modify them to some extent 
in so doing (206) ; to evolve 
perhaps out of the heart- 
shape a conventional flower, 
out of the smaller shapes 
husks with berries. The 
lines become connected 
stalks, clothed in the end 
with foliage, the scale of 
which is fixed by the spaces 
to be occupied, and the 
character by that of the 
flowers . 

Invention, it will be 
seen, is here progressive. Each advance enables the 
designer to see further ahead, as when, in climbing, you 
reach another ridge of hill. To a man in the vein, one 
move suggests the next he may not have known what he 
was going to do, but, one step made, he feels the next 




210. DIAGRAM SHOWING 
WORK " PLAN. 



' BRICK- 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 



189 




211 



PATTERN IN WHICH THE DISTRIBUTION OF FLOWERS AND 
BIRDS WAS THE FIRST STEP OF THE DESIGN. 



190 



PATTERN DESIGN. 






212 DIAGRAM SHOWING FIRST STAGE OF A DESIGN 

must be just so, and no otherwise. What is done pledges 
him to something further. 

The process of designing a drop pattern is set forth in 
diagram 207, in which much the same forms as before are 
purposely employed. 

In this case it is more than ever necessary to repeat each 
form, as soon as determined, in the outer spaces round about 
the central square (containing the unit of design, but not the 
parts of the pattern in their entiiety). The cone-shaped 
feature (2), for instance, not only oversteps the line, but grows 
from a stalk which trails over from the side. That much 
settled, the balance and the lines to the artist's satisfaction, 
he can safely go on to the details in this instance, as it 
happens (208), very different indeed from the last from 
which it will be understood how little the planning or first 
roughing-out pledges one to any definite character of detail. 
Either of these two rough first suggestions migrht just as well 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 



191 



have been carried out after the manner of the other. The 
completion of a pattern very similar in detail to 208 is shown 
on page 186 (209). 

The main point to bear in mind is that there must be 
harmony between the detail and the way it is planned. 
Comparatively natural flowers must grow in a comparatively 
natural way (211). Forms more deliberately ornamental 

(209) demand correspondingly formal lines to accompany 
them. It is in the precise relation of the two that the taste 
of the artist is shown. 

The evolution of a design beginning with line instead of 
mass, is shown in the diagram illustrating the brickwork plan 

(210) in which the consecutive steps were: the wave-line 
across the brick; the continuation of the line across the 
other bricks, to see how it would come, the placing of the 
flower spots to steady the effect ; their connection with the 
mam stem ; and the final filling out with foliage. 




213. DIAGRAM SHOWING SECOND STAGE OF DESIGN (212). 



192 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




214 DIAGRAM SHOWING THIRD STAGE OF DESIGN (212). 




215. DIAGRAM SHOWING FOURTH STAGE OF DESIGN (212) 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 



193 



Whether it is better to start with line or mass depends 
upon what you want to do. It is as well to begin with what 
is most important. If you want grace of line, that must be 
your first thought. Line deserves prominence in design only 
on the condition of its being beautiful. That is where the 
designer comes in. 

In the case of deliberately floral design (211), the more 
convenient plan is to begin by distributing the flowers (assum- 
ing they are to be at all prominent), settling where they shall 
occur, their size and shape, grouping them here into bunches, 
there breaking the ground with isolated blossoms or smaller 
buds, but considering them always as so many colour patches. 
The main stems from which they grow may then be thought 
of, and finally the foliage which is to occupy the space 
between the flowers, avoiding them it may be or backing 
them. 

The stems of flowers (which must be natural in proportion 
to the naturalness of the flowers and leaves) are a standing 



s*H 




2l6 DIAGRAM SHOWING FIFTH STAGE OF DESIGN (212). 



194 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




2iy. PORTION OF DESIGN 212 FINISHED. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 195 

difficulty in design. You must have them, but you do not, as 
a rule, want them to be marked ; and they have a way of 
marking themselves very determinedly. The wary artist m 
planning his design bears in mind from the first the necessity 
of something like natural growth in a natural flower, but still 
he starts with the flower masses unless, of course, the flowers 
form no important part m his scheme ; in which case he 
begins with the foliage, if that is more important ; but 
flowers insist as ajrule upon being the first consideration. 
Absolutely natural growth is rarely possible m pattern, even 
were it to be desired. It takes beautiful lines but seldom 
quite the lines wanted in a given pattern. It is expedient in 
such case to disguise or lose the line of growth in foliage- 
much as it is lost in nature. 

The development of a fairly complicated floral, but not 
too naturalistic, pattern, is traced in diagrams 212 to 217. 
The initial idea was a free-growing pattern in which flowers 
of relatively large size should be supported by smaller ones, 
of different colour for variety's sake a double growth that 
is to say. That would give also an opportunity for variety 
in the colour of the leaves. Naturally one growth would be 
more prominent than the other. 

The first thing to do, having settled that it should be a 
drop pattern (the dimensions of the printer's roller settled 
that it should be twice as wide as it was deep), was to plant 
the more important flowers in place, as at A (212). A central 
group of three large flowers (i) and two small buds (2), when 
repeated as at B, suggested the placing of further flowers 
(3) between, rather nearer to the side edges. These repeated 
as at C, there seemed to be sufficient of this sort, remembering 
there were others to come. The number and position of these 
others (naturally of a different shape) was determined (213) 
by the ground left bare. They are what the vacant spaces 
seemed to call for . a group of three (i), to stop the downward 
gap ; a pair (2), to break the joining line; three separate 
flowers (3), to fill the vacant spaces in the centre. 



I9 6 



PATTERN DESIGN 



J 





218 



DIAGRAM SHOWING FIRST AND SECOND STAGES OF A VELVET 
PATTERN 



The next consideration was the order in which the flowers 
should grow, and first the larger ones A solid line from 
A to A (diagram 214) shows a stem which runs through 
and joins on satisfactorily at the sides ; it had only to be 
repeated in the upper part of the drawing to suggest the 
more or less contrasting (dotted) lines connecting the flowers 
with it. 

The growth of the larger flowers accounted for, that of the 
smaller (given in dotted lines m diagram 215) had to be 
schemed, which left only the leafage to be blotted in (diagram 
216) and the map of the pattern was there. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 



197 





219. DIAGRAM SHOWING THIRD AND FOURTH STAGES OF A VELVET 

PATTERN 

In carrying such a sketch further (a portion only of the 
finished cretonne is given on page 194) the shapes of the forms 
might well want considerable modification, something would 
have to be erased or added, but the groundwork would be all 
there, the plotting done, and the designer free to follow the 
promptings of his artistic impulse. A design of this kind is 
easier to manage if the distinction between the separate 
growths is made clear by the use of very pronouncedly 
different colours, such as red and yellow for the flowers, blue 
and green for the leaves even though there should be no 
intention of any such sharp contrast in the final effect. Some 
such guide is almost necessary, to enable the designer to keep 



198 PATTERN DESIGN 

the threads of his design separate. Indeed, in the case of a 
complicated design of any kind, and especially where there 
are two or more separate elements in it, it is not a bad plan, 
even though it is to be eventually in monochrome, to use 
different tints in plotting it out. It reduces the very serious 
danger of confusion to a minimum. 

The design of which the genesis is next given starts 
neither from stem lines nor from flower masses. The idea 
was to get a broad pattern, bold but not too bold, in three 
shades of colour, light, dark, and middle tint, the kind of 
relation which is so effective in old velvets, where the glossy 
satin ground, the dense rich pile, and the intermediate uncut, 
ribbed surface known as " terry," give three very distinct 
stages of colour, and lead, almost naturally as it seems, to a 
characteristically rich sobriety of effect 

Thinking still of velvet and the softening effect of the 
outline in terry, it was only natural to determine upon the 
middle tint for the outline. 

The first thing to be settled was the mam lines the design 
should take. It was as well, as a bold effect was wanted, to 
make them very bold ; they could always be refined and 
softened. That being so, there could be no better plan 
than waving bands which in opposition give the ever satis- 
factory ogee shape (218). But as it was not a geometric 
pattern that was desired, these broad bands had forthwith 
to be broken in some way ; which was very simply done by 
treating them as bands of foliation, twisting about, and to 
some extent disguising the too plainly geometric planning. 
This was a means of getting, too, some life into the lines. It 
was high time by now to think of the pattern in mass as dark 
upon a light ground (diagram 219), and to sketch in not 
merely the turning over of the foliage but the serration of its 
outline. The broad bands began on this to disappear, but 
the lines were still stiff, and the masses of light and dark in too 
crude contrast. That was corrected by the introduction of 
dark foliage into the ground space D, which very distinctly 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 



199 




V 



220. FINISHED DESIGN OF VELVET PATTERN, 



200 PATTERN DESIGN 

asked for it, and of subsidiary foliation in the ground tint 
upon the broad scroll spaces A, B, C. In these four spaces 
together with the turnover of B and C, the whole pattern, 
it will be seen, is comprised 

Here then was the distribution of the pattern with the 
desired balance of light and dark It is not necessary to 
show the effect of carefully drawing the forms and outlining 
them with the middle tint. A certain hardness of form 
remained, and the effect was generally rather bald. How 
this was set right by slightly foliating the outline itself and 
by breaking either light or dark, wherever it seemed neces- 
sary, with veinmg in the middle tint, is shown in the completed 
pattern (220), where the bands upon which it is set out are 
lost to sight though their influence is no doubt felt. 

By the sort of counterchange of light and dark (the abrupt - 
transition of the one to the other softened always by the 
intermediate outline tint), a certain mystery is produced 
which is one of the aims of surface decoration. 

At the same time it was easy, by proceeding from the 
first logically, and upon well-considered lines, to make sure 
that whatever lines might assert themselves some eyes are 
keener to detect them than others they should at least be 
orderly and not ungraceful. 

The intelligent reader who has followed the working out 
of the problems thus far explained will hardly need to be told 
that the forms of a design take shape only gradually 

The way of the experienced designer is never to settle 
any detail definitely until the balance of his lines and masses 
is completely to his mind. Outline is almost the last thing 
he puts in, never the first. After it there remains only to fill 
in details such as the veinmg of leaves, if any, or perhaps that 
extra pattern upon pattern (221) which meets the conditions 
implied by certain processes of manufacture 

One distinct advantage in " inhabited pattern " (the 
phrase is Morris's but the device is Persian) is that it enables 
one to conciliate those who look at a design with their nose 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 



201 




221. SIMPLE PATTERN AND ITS AFTER ELABORATION 

too near it, without sacrifice of breadth in the end. For, in 
its place the " pretty " detail goes only to qualify the colour, 
and the broader lines of the design reveal themselves. 

The lines and masses first put down upon paper are, at the 
most, provisional. It will never do to begin with finish. 
The very mention of such a thing is a flat contradiction in 
terms. Every line mapped out in your rough scheme may 
have to be altered ; and the advantage of, in the first place, 
only blotting it all in, and in fact the reason for doing so, is 
that you are not committed to anything, and that you have 
not yet carried any one part of it to such a degree of finish or 
satisfactoriness that you are loth to wipe it out Your mind 
remains open to every suggestion which may arise out of the 
perhaps accidental coming together of the lines on your paper. 
Pledge yourself to a single bit of detail, and there is no 
knowing what trouble you may have in trying (after all 
vainly perhaps) to accommodate everything else to it 



2O2 




PATTERN DESIGN 

m 





222 



B C 

DIAGRAMS SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN 



The chances of design are illustrated in the diagram above, 
setting forth the possible evolution of a portion of a pilaster 
not, for once, repeated. The sculptor had an upright space 
to fill. He began with vague forms (A, 222), thinking so far 
only of the way they occupied the space, their grace and 
balance, and the pleasant way they broke the upright band. 
The actual drawing of the shapes was still very much in the 
air. As likely as not, he had no idea how he would carry 
them further. That would depend upon what they suggested 
to him once he had roughed them in. They might have 
developed into foliation, buds, a central vase to steady the 
design, as indicated at B, the kind of thing familiar enough in 
Italian arabesque. As it happened they took another shape, 
the form of grotesque creatures more nearly animal than 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN. 203 

vegetable (c). What might have been buds became heads, 
and what might have been their stalks long necks or other 
impossible limbs, the vase-like feature the skull of an ox, 
and so forth, after the manner of grotesque ornament. 

A designer can see quite plainly in the finished work (c) 
the lines on which the sculptor set out to design his pilaster ; 
and it is the perception of the underlying lines which gives 
him satisfaction in the work : they show the ornamental 
purpose of the man. 

I have chosen this example of grotesque ornament because 
it is with animal forms that designers oftenest go wrong 
They make use of animals to fill up a space, or on the 
futile supposition that they enhance the value of ornament 
They do so only on the condition of being first of all 
ornament. 

A designer does not import animals into his pattern. He 
starts with certain vaguely ornamental forms. As the pattern 
grows, he feels the want of here and there a solid shape or 
patch of colour bigger than the rest, which develops it may 
be into animal or human form. It was the want of a greater 
weight of ornament as a termination to the spiral in the 
pattern overleaf (223) which suggested the scroll's growing 
into a creature ; and that led naturally to its bursting out into 
life at other points too a freak of invention, it seems to me, 
excusable only in proportion to the reticence of the design. 
Creatures thrusting themselves upon the attention would be 
unpardonable in ornament. As giving a certain point and 
piquancy to a tangle of scrollery, they justify themselves now 
and again. 

Pattern, as I have insisted throughout, should be systemati- 
cally planned the particular plan adopted will depend, of 
course, upon the kind of pattern and its purpose. A designer 
naturally avoids the plan which has a tendency to encourage 
lines contrary to his scheme, and vice versa. 

It is not meant to say that the designer should be hemmed 
in with arbitrary rules Occasionally he may start very much 



204 



PATTERN DESIGN 




223. SCROLL PATTERN, BURSTING OUT INTO GROTESQUES. 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 205 

at a venture, pledging himself (on the understanding that he 
is always free to retract) to something quite experimental, 
just to see what will come of it in repetition and what it will 
suggest. That is better at all events than hesitating on the 
brink of beginning. The plunge is salutary, and stimulates 
invention. The difficulty is to know when to give up an 
abortive attempt. Only the artist himself can say at what 
point his endeavour is hopeless. But he may be cautioned 
against persisting in it when it is past hope. 

There comes a point (and it comes very soon sometimes) 
when, unless he is very firmly convinced that there is some- 
thing in his idea, it is better to abandon it and start afresh. 
It costs a sharp pang to let go, but, the disappointment past, 
we realise the wisdom of such sacrifice Any way which 
leads to satisfactory design is right ; but as a rule it is waste 
of time to plunge recklessly into pattern. There is not often 
much use in putting hand to paper until you have a notion of 
what you are going to do. Do not scribble about. Wait 
until something comes to you. In so far design is inspiration. 
It comes to you It happens. You have in your mind's eye 
a glimpse of coloured patches disposed in such and such a 
way, or of lines flowing sweetly into ornament ; you have a 
vision of luxuriant growth bursting happily into bloom, or of 
barely clad branches austere against the sky. Your starting 
point may be a memory of something whispered by nature ; 
it may be a provocation, a challenge from the lips of art. 
Possibly the decorative or technical problem may itself ask 
for solution and so set you on the track of design. 

Without some sort of notion a designer does not make a 
promising start, and the clearer his idea both of the construc- 
tion of his pattern and of its ultimate form, the better ; but 
the longer he can keep his ideas in suspension, to use a term 
of chemistry, the more freely will he work. 

A notion is manageable only so long as it remains in the 
fluid state. Once it has been allowed to crystallise into definite 
form, it is no longer possible to mould or modify it at will. 



206 



PATTERN DESIGN 




224 DIAGRAM SHOWING AFTER-THOUGHTS AS TO TREATMENT. 

Every advantage should be taken of the possibilities which 
open out as a designer proceeds. Many a design works out 
in such a way as to compel departure from the initial idea. 
What was to have been an open pattern promises to be better 
as a full one ; what was to have been full reaches a state when 
it is advisable to leave it open The diagram (224) shows 
three states of the same design the first as it was originally 
planned, the second with an extra outline filched as it were 
from the background, the third with a softer dotted outline 
belonging also to the ground. After- thoughts of this kind 
enable one to fatten a pattern which looks starved and 
otherwise to save the situation Expedients of the kind 
have been abused, it is true ; but if we were bound m taste 
to abstain from every practical device which had been turned 
to vulgar account, the possibilities of design would be reduced 
to a minimum 

The available lines of design are by no means exhausted 
by the instances given in this chapter. Nor need design pro- 
ceed upon any one of the plans set forth. Men of initiative 



HOW TO SET ABOUT DESIGN 207 

will always find ways of their own to their own ends. All 
that has been attempted is to explain how some designs have 
grown, to indicate some ways in which an idea may develop 
and take shape. Designers with exceptionally retentive 
memory may be able to carry the stages of development 
further in their minds than others ; but it seems natural to 
an artist to put them down on paper in the order of their 
progress. 



XV. TO PROVE A PATTERN. 

The unit of design a repeat Repeat to be tested One repeat not 
enough to show how design works More must be indicated Test 
of roughing out on one plan and working out on another Accurate 
fit essential Proving to be done at early stage of design Test of 
cutting up drawing and rearranging the parts. 

A DESIGN is contained within a single unit or repeat. That 
unit is all the artist has to design ; but he must conceive 
it as a repeat, thinking always of its effect in repetition. 
And, unless he is repeating himself, and doing only what he 
has often done before, he has usually to test the repetition, 
before he can consider it done. Else he may have made a 
beautiful drawing, and yet turned out a very bad pattern. 

The mistake is not to sketch out enough of the design 
to show how the lines will come a common mistake of the 
inexperienced, of just those who can least trust their work 
to come right. 

The safe plan is, not to be content with a single unit, but 
to indicate, however roughly, the equivalent to three or four 
repeats. One complete unit and four half-repeats, with 
perhaps four quarter-repeats (diagram 225), is no more than 
enough. 

This roughing in of repeats is not the most exciting part 
of a designer's work ; but neither is it a joy to find, when a 
design is finished, that it wants doing over again, or to see 
in executed work, too late to mend mistakes, the glaring 
evidence of your incompetence or carelessness. 

Moreover, having thoroughly tested your repeat to begin 

208 



TO PROVE A PATTERN. 



209 



with, you have no occasion to draw more than the bare unit 
of a pattern. It is a common practice to draw more of the 
pattern than is necessary for working purposes, and yet not 
enough to show how it will come in repetition. 

An alternative test is to rough out your design on one plan 
and then try it on another to begin it, for example, on the 
diamond and to finish it on square lines, or vice versa (see 
diagrams 125, 127, 128, 129, 133, 134, 227). By that means 
you see it, as it were, from two points of view, and can form a 
fair idea at all events as to how it works at the joints. For 
this purpose, also, it is necessary to start on a sheet of paper 
large enough to contain more than one repeat. 

The best of all possible tests is, to see it repeated. And 
the important thing in repetition is, that the repeats, roughly 
as they may be drawn, should be placed exactly in their right 
position ; that they should not be freely sketched (freely in 
such a case means inaccurately) but traced, or, better still 
perhaps, stencilled. That is a test which any one can apply ; 
and it is infallible. 

The earlier the stage at which this testing is done the 
better A designer is bound in the interests of his own 
reputation to make sure of the satisfactory repeat of a pattern 
before he lets it out of his hands. He may be working at a 



j_ 
4 


I 
2. 


\ 
4 


I 

2. 


t 


1 

z 


i 


1 
~2. 


i 



1 


i 

2. 


1 


2. 


\ 


2. 


Z 


I 


i 


2. 



225. DIAGRAMS SHOWING HOW MUCH OF THE REPEAT MAY WITH 
ADVANTAGE BE ROUGHLY SET OUT TO BEGIN WITH. 



210 



PATTERN DESIGN 




226 DIAGRAMS TO SHOW THE PROVING OF A PATTERN. 

price at which he thinks that is not to be expected of him ; 
but, if his design does not repeat satisfactorily, it will be 
reckoned against him, no matter what the price paid for it , 
and, on the other hand, work is likely to flow towards the 
artist whose designs work out all right. This much by way 



TO PROVE A PATTERN 



211 



of warning and encouragement. But it is not merely on the 
grounds of policy that this much of honesty is recommended. 
There goes to all good work something for which we get 
neither pay nor credit, but which an artist must persist in 
doing if only for his own artistic satisfaction. The grudging 
workman who is careful to stop short at what is remunerative, 
is not unlikely to stop short of art. 

A practical designer learns to attach no great value to the 
look of his drawing. He finds it expedient, often, to cut it up, 
and rearrange the pieces in that way testing the repeat to 
some extent What it enables him to do perfectly, is to test 
the joints of the design. This is illustrated in diagram 226. 
To the left (No. i) is the pattern, as the designer might 
sketch it in, enough to show the lines it will take. The 
unit of repeat is shown below (2). In the next instance 
(3) this haS been cut across into two equal parts A B and 
C D, and the two halves transposed, so that what were 
before the upper and lower edges are brought together. If 
at this stage the lines did not fit, it would be easy to set 
them right. 

The joining of the side edges has then to be tested (4), 
Once more the drawing is cut in two, vertically this time, so 
that portions A and C can be transferred to the right of B and 
D. But, since this is a "drop" pattern, they have been 
transposed. In the remaining diagram (5) parts A and C 
have been left as they were (in 3), 
and parts B and D, duly trans- 
posed, transferred to the left of 
them. The four quarters of the 
design have thus been shuffled 
and dealt out in every practicable 
order, and each portion of it in 
turn promoted to the position most 
in view. 

In the case of a pattern which 
did not drop, the proving would 







I 
....I. 



227 DIAGRAM TO SHOW 
HOW A PATTERN DESIGNED 
ON DIAMOND LINES MAY 
BE PROVED. 



212 PATTERN DESIGN 

have been a yet simpler matter The way in which a 
diamond may m like manner be cut up and the parts re- 
arranged to form a square or a slanting figure, is sufficiently 
indicated by the accompanying skeleton lines (227). To 
form the slanting figure the triangular portions on either 
side have only to be cut off and transposed. To form the 
square, they need to be bisected and the wedge-shaped pieces 
fitted on to the hexagon. 



XVI. PATTERN PLANNING IN RELATION TO 
TECHNIQUE. 

Dimensions of design determined by conditions of manufacture Possi- 
bilities in block printing Limitations in weaving Narrow repeat a 
condition of the loom The " turnover " A space of " single " 
Borders Table damask The lengthening piece Difficulties resulting 
Conditions affecting colour Change of shuttle Its use and danger 
Carpet weaving " Planted '* colours Chenille Characteristics of 
style accounted for by technique 

IT has been shown how the pattern designer is practically 
compelled to design, not precisely on square lines, but on the 
lines of a parallelogram. And not only that. The distance 
of the lines apart is almost certainly laid down for him. It is 
a parallelogram certainly of restricted size, and possibly of 
arbitrary proportions, with which he has to do. Without 
uniformity in the width of stuffs silks, velvets, carpets, 
chintzes, or whatever they may be it would be difficult to 
estimate off-hand their relative cost ; and estimating is a 
matter of everyday necessity. Without stock sizes of tiles, 
the price by the yard, and the cost of fixing them, would 
not be easy to settle. 

The width of stuffs is determined, if not by mechanism, 
by custom and convenience. The length of a woven pattern 
is restricted by considerations of economy, and that of a 
printed one by the girth of the roller, or the size of the block 
it is convenient to handle ; so that in a vast number of cases 
a designer has to work within conditions which fix for him, 
not only the size, but the proportions, of his design. It 

213 



214 PATTERN DESIGN. 

resolves itself into his working within the lines, say, of a 
parallelogram 30 by 15 inches for printed cotton ; or 21 by 21 
inches (at most) for wall-paper; for tiles, within a square 
mesh of lines 6 or 8 inches apart. And he is free only within 
such limits. Theoretically, it is true that a design for wall- 
paper may be spread over an area involving any number of 
blocks ; as a matter of fact, it is not. The designer is 
occasionally allowed in the case of sumptuous papers, and of 
certain single prints, a repeat of 42 inches long ; but patterns 
spread over a larger area than that would cost more to 
produce than paper-hangings are usually worth. And, over 
and above the commercial consideration (which is in itself 
enough to prevent that kind of extravagance), it is a point of 
craftsmanship not to waste labour. It is the test of a 
designer's capacity that he should not ask forfurther facilities, 
but make the most of what the conditions offer him. 

The mechanical conditions of block printing permit 
certain extensions of plan which roller printing does not. 
It is possible with a single block 21 by 21 inches to print 
either a radiating or a turning-round pattern which in the 
hanging shows a repeat measuring 42 inches each way. 

Imagine the square lines in diagram 228 to be 21 inches 
apart. The unit contained in one of the divisions A stands 
for what the block will print. The printer has only after 
printing one impression (A) to give the block a twist round 
before printing the next (< ) to get the result shown at the 
bottom of the diagram, which represents also the width of the 
paper. As yet, however, we have only half a pattern. It 
remains with the paperhanger to set that right. He hangs 
every other strip as it were upside down ( y <! ) and the 
complete pattern results on the wall. 

The design given on a smaller scale on page 216, in 
which also the repeat is actually 42 inches across, is got out 
of a single (2i-mch) block in the same way. 

Further, it is possible by means of two 2i-inch blocks to 
print a pattern of which the repeat works on a rectangular 




228 DIAGRAM TO SHOW A HALF-TURN OF THE BLOCK IN PRINTING 
A CEILING PAPER, AND THE REVERSAL OF ALTERNATE 

STRIPS IN THE HANGING. 
O 



216 



PATTERN DESIGN 



diamond measuring 84 inches from point to point In this 
case, however, the design must radiate, and not turn ro.und 
or, when the alternate strips came to be hung (as to com- 
plete the pattern they would need to be) opposite ways about, 
the design would not run on. 

The diagram opposite (230) shows four widths of paper. 
In the strip to the left A and B represent the prints from the 
two 21-inch blocks, w and < prints from the same blocks 
twisted round. In the second strip BA A B a strip precisely 
similar to av > upside down, the hanging is so schemed 



*C>VOT 
<$$rv^ 




229 DIAGRAM OF CEILING PATTERN (IN EFFECT, 42 INCHES 
ACROSS) ON THE PRINCIPLE OF DIAGRAM 228. 




230 DIAGRAM SHOWING A PATTERN IN EFFECT 84 INCHES WIDE 
PRODUCED BY TWO BLOCKS EACH ONLY 21 INCHES BY 21 INCHES. 



218 PATTERN DESIGN. 

that a is on a level with A and v with B. The third strip is 
hung the same way up as the first, but so as to drop 42 inches 
below that. The fourth strip is again the same way up as the 
second, but so as to drop 42 inches below that 

All this would be difficult to follow in print, but for the 
diagram. With that to refer to, it is easy enough 

Patterns of this character are not wanted in wall decora- 
tion ; but for ceilings they give not only a sufficient scale, but 
just the lines which are most serviceable 

These devices by no means exhaust the possibilities in the 
way of cunning contrivance But the block printer does not 
look kindly on designs which ask of him a little extra care 
and as for the paperhanger, he is persuaded that the use of 
his brains is no part of his business. Indeed that scheme last 
explained is already too intricate to have been put into 
practice, which it might easily have been if only the paper- 
stainer could have depended upon the goodwill of the 
paperhanger. 

The designer of wall tiling has every reason for scheming 
his repeat to work on the brick system (231). 

The material for which a man is designing settles, in a 
measure at least, both the dimension and the proportions of 
his pattern. Thus, for a printed fabric the roller commonly 
allows him an area twice as wide as it is deep. For wall- 
paper the block allows him at the most a square of definite 
dimensions, except that he may on occasion be free to use two 
blocks. For a woven fabric the loom gives him a consider- 
able length of pattern not greatly restricted by expense, but 
usually only a narrow width, precisely fixed according to the 
loom, and affords him very likely the opportunity of doubling 
the width of his design by turning it over So uniformly are 
these conditions so, that an experienced designer can often 
tell, from the proportions and scale of a design, the kind of 
manufacture for which it was made. The copyist, on the 
other hand, who finds a pattern which has apparently been 
overlooked, and thinks to appropriate it to his own use, 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 219 




231. SIX-INCH TILE PATTERN DESIGNED TO BE FIXED BRICKWISE. 




232 NARROW TURNOVER PATTERN ADAPTED TO WEAVING. 



222 



PATTERN DESIGN. 



233 NARROW WOVEN 
DAMASK PATTERN. 



discovers perhaps, before he has done 
with it, that there was good reason 
why it had not already been annexed 
inasmuch as it depends upon pro- 
portions which the machine, to the 
requirements of which he desires to 
adapt it, will not permit him to preserve. 
Even among a designer's own happiest 
thoughts there will be some which (if 
he works only in one material) must, 
for much the same reason, be stillborn. 
A new set of conditions starts a man off 
in quite a new vein. 

In the design on page 221 the 
width of the material is indicated 
in the central strip, where the back- 
ground is filled in If that were 
wall-paper, 21 inches wide, it would 
take no less than four full-sized blocks 
to print it which would not be worth 
while. If it were a woven stuff, the 
long repeat, though adding to the 
expense of production, would not be 
very much against it. As a matter of 
fact, patterns of that relative length 
often occur in textiles. The one on 
this page is again a turnover (233). 

The narrow pattern opposite (234) is 
a wall-paper design which is only lo 
inches wide. In wall-paper printing 
there is no economy in this as there 
would be in cotton printing but artisti- 
cally there may be very good reasons for 
using sometimes only half the width 
the block allows. 

The weaver adopts the long and 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 223 




234 WALL-PAPER PATTERN IOJ- INCHES WIDE BY WHICH NO 
ECONOMY IS EFFECTED. 



224 



PATTERN DESIGN. 



narrow repeat all the more readily that he has a handy means 
of counteracting its too upright tendency The cross stripes 
which form the pattern of an Indian dhurri or an African 
blanket represent the handloom weaver's simplest means 
of changing colour that is, by changing his shuttle. In 
more elaborate pattern he has the same facility, and can 
always cross his upright strips by bands of colour carrying 
the eye in the other direction. And this scheme of banding 
extends through much of the early weaving, affecting also 
the form of the design 

A Byzantine or Sicilian weaver of old was the more 
inclined to make use of the horizontal lines suggested by the 



ttirnouer 




235 DIAGRAM OF WOVEN PATTERN, " TURNOVER " AND " SINGLE 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 225 



Tttrnoocr 




236. DIAGRAMS * SHOWING CORRESPONDENCE IN DEPTH OF REPEAT 
, BETWEEN THE PARTS OF A DESIGN 

shuttle, because he had no fear of their asserting themselves. 
In fact he was in the habit of insisting upon them, for he 
valued stripes as ( a tneans^af marking the folds and show- 
ing the fullness of a hanging. They do that so effectually 
that* a flat wall-design in horizontal stripes seems to want 
folds, and to suggest that it was borrowed from a textile. 
Many* a pattern borrowed from an old stuff by its stripes 
you shall know it is far from satisfactory as a wall-paper. 

The proportions allowed for the repeat naturally affect 
the character of the design. You cannot without considerable 
allowance in the way of length indulge in boldly flowing 
scrollwork ; nor, where the width is narrow, avoid a certain 
upright tendency in the growth of pattern counteract it as 
you may by cross bands. 

The weaver's custom of reserving in the centre of a turn- 
over pattern a space in which the design is not reversed has 



226 



PATTERN DESIGN 



been already mentioned (page 93). By that means the stiff- 
ness of a definite upright line, the formality of mere reversal, 
and the obtrusiveness of what is after all a mechanical device, 
are avoided. A loom may be so harnessed, and commonly is 
so harnessed (235), as to allow the designer a space up the 
centre of his curtain (or of the repeat of it) in which he is free 
to do as he pleases so long as this central part of his design 
joins on at the sides to the two broad wings which make up 
the main portion of his design The same thing applies 
equally to the design of a border. In diagram 235 the 




237- 



DIAGRAM SHOWING RELATION OF DIAPER REPEAT TO REPEAT 
OF SIDE AND BOTTOM BORDERS 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 227 

border on one side is a turnover of that on the other ; but 
the turnover might equally well be within the border itself. 
Filling and border pattern, that is to say, may alike be 
turned over ; and in each may be reserved a central strip 
of what is technically termed " single.'' The width of that 
portion of the design is a question of arrangement and 
partly of cost. An important consideration to be borne in 
mind is that the introduction of any proportion of single 
design is at the cost of possible increase in width 

The device of turning over gives one, for example, double 
the width otherwise allowed, say, for a border. Instead of a 
" free " pattern 9 inches wide it allows a bisymmetrical one 
of 1 8 inches. But it is only so much of the width as is turned 
over that is doubled. If, then, you reserve let us say 3 inches 
in the centre for " single," the extent of your border wou^d 
not be 1 8 inches but 15 the sum that is to say of 3 inches 
(single) and twice 6 inches (turned over). The technique of 
weaving has here, it will be seen, considerable bearing not 
merely upon design but upon its plan. 

Single and turnover portions of a design must naturally 
correspond in length They need not of necessity be equal 
as at A 236, but it is practically convenient to make them 
so. The design B could, of course, be woven; but, if the 
repeat of the turnover measured 9 inches, a manufacturer 
would not allow 1 8 inches for the single. In the same way 
the repeat of a border must naturally correspond at the side 
of a curtain with the depth of a filling pattern, and at the 
bottom with its width (235, 237) and if part of the filling is 
single, the corresponding portion of the border also may be. 

In the case of a narrow and not very important border 
it may be shorter than the filling as long as its length is 
divisible into that a 9-inch filling may have a border of 
4^ inches, or 3 inches, or i. And so where the border is 
the main feature and the filling a mere diaper (237), that may 
measure only half or a third or a quarter of its length. And 
were it mechanically possible to weave border and filling the 



228 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




238 



DIAGRAM SHOWING PORTIONS OF DESIGN ANSWERING 
PRACTICALLY TO BORDERS 



repeats of which measured respectively say 7 and 9 inches 
it is doubtful if artistically it would be worth while : the 
simple thing to do is commonly the right one. It is some- 
times desirable to make a curtain or other pattern complete 
in itself with start and finish (238). For working purposes 
these may be regarded as borders, and must conform to the 
conditions regulating border design. 

Further complexities occur in the design of table linen. 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 229 







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239 DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW A TABLE DAMASK DESIGN MAY 
BE PLANNED. 



230 



PATTERN DESIGN. 







240. DIAGRAM OF TABLE DAMASK DESIGN PLANNED ON THE LINES 
OF DIAGRAM 239 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 231 

The conditions seem at first sight to allow great freedom to 
the artist. He has only to design a square or oblong cloth 
each quarter of which is a turnover of the other, and in the 
centre he may have a space where there is no repeat. That 
is charming in theory In practice his task is not so simple. 
It is complicated by the necessity of arranging some means 
of lengthening the cloth to suit tables of various dimensions. 
And it resolves itself into his having to design a lengthening 
piece (usually of 9 or 1 8 inches) which must be so schemed that 
it can be inserted once, twice, thrice, or any number of times, 
to make a cloth of any length. The scope which the manu- 
facturer gives with one hand he thus takes back with the 
other. To such an extent is his freedom restricted that the 
artist is inclined at first to think his possibilities are narrowed 
to little more than the extension and finishing off of the 
design for a lengthening piece. 

Where it is not desired in any way to acknowledge the 
centre of the cloth the problem may be resolved into the 
design of an 1 8-inch repeat (reversed or not in the centre) 
merely finished off at the edges or cut short by the border. 

Where it is desired to give importance to the centre of the 
cloth the loom can be arranged so that there is no turning 
over there ; but if the end portions are turned over it is 
difficult to scheme a growing pattern in which the stems do 
not grow two ways. Again, if the artist is disposed to take 
advantage of the area allowed him to get good sweeping lines 
in his main design, his ardour is damped by the reflection 
that he must somehow combine them with the comparatively 
restrained lines which are all that is possible in the lengthening 
piece. This affects the border in particular very seriously. 
Try to introduce into a sweeping scroll design a yard long 
a lengthening piece of half a yard, and you will realise the 
impossibility of it. 

Counsels of safety are: to confine oneself in the main 
design to lines such as can be repeated in the lengthening 
piece : to allot spaces at least in the design to sprigs, sprays, 



232 PATTERN DESIGN. 

or disconnected diaper: to avoid, like the Arabs or their 
imitators of the Renaissance, growth so natural as to be hurt 
when it is suddenly doubled back or made to grow two ways. 
To take full advantage of the apparent opportunity of design 
afforded by the dimensions of an ample tablecloth, and at the 
same time to preserve something like logical growth, is what 
any but an experienced damask designer will find it difficult 
to do 

The accompanying diagrams (239, 240) may be of use to 
the beginner. The first of these is divided, it will be seen, 
into ten divisions each measuring 9 inches (tablecloths are 
always measured by quarter yards), two of which are given 
to the border and two to the single piece up the centre, which 
leaves two for the turnover piece between 

The plan shows three-quarters of a square ' ' ten-quarter ' ' 
cloth (a smaller size is " eight-quarter "), and, above, to the 
right, one-quarter of a cloth into which two lengthening 
pieces are introduced. 

The corresponding diagram (240) shows the beginnings 
of a pattern planned on similar lines, but with the two 
lengthening pieces inserted, one above and one below the 
centre. 

An 1 8-inch border practically represents that portion of 
the cloth which may be presumed to fall over, and the 
central six quarters the portion which will lie flat on the 
table. Any extra border within that space is reckoned as 
part of the filling ; any part of the filling which extends 
beyond the six-quarter area is reckoned as border. The 
lengthening piece or pieces need not be introduced as shown 
in the diagrams above ; they may come in the centre of the 
cloth. 

The plan more usually adopted by damask designers is to 
halve the design, open it out, and let in the lengthening 
pieces. Diagram 241 (opposite) represents a square which 
might stand either for an eight-quarter cloth or the centre 
portion of a larger one. Below it (242) is the lengthening 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE 



233 







241. DIAGRAM OF CENTRE PART OF SQUARE TABLECLOTH. 




242. DIAGRAM OF LENGTHENING PIECE TO CORRESPOND WITH 

ABOVE. 
P 



234 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




243. 



DIAGRAM OF CENTRE PART OF LONG TABLECLOTH SHOWING 
INTRODUCTION OF LENGTHENING PIECES. 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 235 

piece, and opposite (243) the result of opening out the 
square and letting in two lengthening pieces. 

The changing of the weaver's shuttle, responsible for the 
stripes in a dhurri, gives scope to the designer of more sump- 
tuous and less simple fabrics. There can be no more colours 
m a stuff than there are threads of different colour in its 
make. But each group of threads may be brought to the 
surface at the option of the designer and, if for any group 
or groups of threads he prefers to use instead of a single 
colour alternating bands of different colours, he can do so 
and if these particular colours do not come often to the 
surface, he can get as it were jewels of extra colour 
without calling attention to its occurrence in bands but 
it takes some ingenuity to do that. The stripes have a per- 
sistent way of asserting themselves. Successfully to divert 
attention from the mechanism underlying such a distribution 
of colour is within the scope only of an expert designer. His 
task is easier if he is free to gradate the various colours so 
that they die one into another or into the ground ; but even 
with flat colours a man who knows his trade can effectively 
disguise the means employed to variety. 

The kind of variation possible is illustrated in diagram 
244, where the strawberry blossoms are successively of three 
different tints, indicated in black, in dots, and in diagonal 
hnes, and the changes of the shuttle are very plainly 
shown in the bands at the side which may represent the 
selvedge. 

What one weaver does with the weft another does with 
the warp. The carpet designer, working for a material of 
which the warp comes always to the surface, does by the 
arrangement of his warp threads in bands what another 
weaver does by changing the shuttle. In a " five-frame " 
carpet five series of warp threads are brought to the surface 
and give a design in five colours, but if in one of them (or it 
may be two or even three " frames ") the threads instead of 
being all of one colour are arranged, as it were, in ribbons 



2 3 6 



PATTERN DESIGN. 



of different colours, these various colours can just as easily be 
brought to the surface as threads all of one colour. 

According to the number of stripes in which the threads 
of a " frame " are arranged is the number of the colours to be 
got out of it But, as in the case of the changing shuttle 
only the colour of that one shuttle could possibly occur in 
the line across which it was shot, so in the case of the warp 



/ \ A* r Ytvr*aC_ wf/ F ^^-^^J 




244. DIAGRAM SHOWING CHANGE OF COLOUR IN THE WEFT 
THREADS. 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE 237 




245 DIAGRAM SHOWING CHANGE OF COLOUR IN WARP THREADS 

threads no one colour in a given frame can cross the path of 
another it occurs only in the line of the underlying stripe. 

Diagram 245 shows one frame of the warp divided into 
six stripes which give only three colours. They might just 



PATTERN DESIGN 



as easily have been six, and they might each of them have 
been gradated from light to dark or from warm to cold. That 
would have made with the other four frames ten colours in all 
as it is we have seven, only four of which the artist is free 
to use as he will. 

There is no real difficulty in scheming a pattern to meet 
such conditions as these And even in the more complicated 
case where two frames or more are thus divided into stripes 
all that the designer has to do is to make sure that his 
" planted ' ' colours, to use the trade term, do not exceed their 
bounds. This he can easily do either by ruling guide lines 
on his drawing, or by the use of a strip of paper painted with 
each colour in its order and proportion which he can move 







A 



246. DIAGRAM SHOWING REVERSAL OF DESIGN IN CHENILLE 
WEAVING 



PLANNING IN RELATION TO TECHNIQUE. 239 

about as a gauge. With a clear head he should have no great 
difficulty in keeping one colour out of the way of another. 

He is not always careful to make his details correspond 
precisely with the colour stripe, and by the occasional over- 
lapping of the form by a colour not apparently belonging to 
it, or vice versa,) the appearance of abrupt transition is 
avoided. It looks as if mistakes in gauging had resulted 
occasionally in happy effects of confusion, and that the 
device had since been employed deliberately. 

It will be seen (245) that it is mainly in the flower centres 
that the planted colours are used the mass of the flower itself 
carries the eye far beyond the spots of colour, which might 
otherwise run into stripes The idea is, of course, that in the 
confusion of flower, leaf, ground, and outline colours the 
order of these jewels of bright colour shall not be too apparent. 
In the diagram they are purposely insisted upon, and the 
foliage is barely indicated In the woven fabric the form of 
the pronounced foliage would help very much to give that 
mystery of effect which is at times so valuable. The com- 
plicated mechanism necessary to the frequent changing of the 
shuttle in powerloom weaving leads in many modern fabrics 
to the use of a number of warps, any one of which can 
be brought to the surface wherever the colour of it enters 
into the design. If yet more colours are wanted, they may 
as already explained (page 236) be " planted." Each 
additional warp adds naturally to the heaviness of the stuff 

A very, exceptional facility is afforded by the process of 
chenille weaving The design may extend right across the 
curtain and the repeats need not follow one above the other 
in the usual way. Each alternate one may, if it is desired, 
be reversed. The repeat of the design (246) on page 238 
would in the ordinary way include two groups of flowers 
(A, B), and there would be no economy in making one the 
reverse of the other ; but in chenille weaving there would ; 
and the repeat is comprised in the unit A, of which B is the 
reverse. 



240 PATTERN DESIGN. 

In the Persian carpet (frontispiece) an effective scheme is 
evolved by the use of two contrasting grounds of dark blue 
and lighter red, broken and diversified by a large amount 
of small detail. In the modern Viennese designs (258) the 
two contrasting shades in the fish design, No. 3, serve to 
emphasise the form, but in the flying cranes, No. i, have a 
tendency rather to disguise. The centre shows how similar 
forms in three different tones can combine pleasingly with 
a well-tinted diaper background. 

The characteristic lines of time-honoured patterns are for 
the most part the direct result of the restrictions under which 
the designer was working. Fashion has had her say in the 
matter no doubt it is a wicked way she has but, though 
certain lines of design may have become associated in our 
minds with a particular period or country, it will be found, I 
think, that there was always some technical or practical 
reason why in the first instance they were adopted. Appro- 
priate pattern lines do not come of themselves growth and 
fitness go together. 

Pattern design has always been and will always be 
considerably affected by considerations which never occur to 
the uninitiated. 



XVII. PATTERN NOT STRICTLY REPEATING. 

Balance of design The decoration of a space or panel Mechanical 
subdivision not the way an artist sets to work Measurement by the 
eye Panelling Composition The border Attacking a panel from the 
outside and from inwards Borders inseparable from the filling Diaper 
conforming to the conditions of a panel Rules of composition not to be 
laid down Delights of daring Charm of order Systematic construc- 
tion of pattern Artistic anarchy 

OF pattern not strictly repeating there is less to be said, and 
would be practically nothing to say were it not that there is 
often repetition in it. That is where the geometric element 
comes in and the occasion to discourse of order. The 
balance of ornament not subject to repetition is so entirely 
a question to be determined by the eye that, even were it 
possible, it would serve no purpose to lay down rules and 
regulations to be observed in its composition. However, in 
so far as there is repetition in it, it needs to be discussed. 

Given, then, a surface to decorate, not with repeated 
pattern, but with ornament in which there is repetition how 
to set about it ? 

Let us take for our surface a rectangular space or panel. 
The shape and proportions of this typical space are either 
satisfactory or they are not. In the one case the artist 
should be careful not to disturb the satisfactory condition of 
things. In the other it is his business to amend or correct. 
This is precisely the province of ornament. 

There is a simple way of covering a surface with pattern 
which has too readily been accepted as sufficient. To divide 
it into quarters, and these again into quarters, and so again, 

241 



242 PATTERN DESIGN. 

and perhaps again, until you arrive mechanically at sub- 
divisions small enough to form the ground lines of a harmless 
diaper, is not so much to plan a design as to shirk the 
responsibility of invention. The ground plan that " happens ' ' 
is not greatly to the credit of the artist. And that is not, in 
fact, the way an artist sets to work 

Geometrically planned pattern may be the very thing ; 
but the designer will find it expedient to consider, before he 
begins, the proportions of the space with which he has to deal , 
and will subdivide it into divisions which are not necessarily 
quarters, or quarters of quarters, or quarters of quarters of 
quarters. The given area will itself suggest to him its sub- 
division into twelfths, or thirtieths, or parts of subtler propor- 
tion, determined, in the first instance, not by measurement 
but by the eye. Afterwards he will find it a saving of time 
to measure them and set them true. A diaper should 
naturally have reference to the space it is to occupy. 
It should not be casually designed and recklessly cut 
short, but neither should it be mechanically proportioned 
to it. 

Such subdivisions are commonly but the ground plan of 
design, only to be traced by those conversant with pattern 
construction ; but they may be, and often are, conspicuous 
parts of the pattern. It is convenient thus to divide an area 
of considerable extent into sections, each of which becomes in 
turn the subject of consideration to be decorated or not, as 
in the case, for example, of panelling, where the panels (for 
the most part bordered with mouldings) are some of them 
left plain, some enriched with ornament. This may either 
run through them and connect them, or it may be confined 
within the limits of each separate panel into which it 
enters. 

When we speak of the " pattern " of a panel it is very 
much as a painter sometimes speaks of the pattern of a 
picture, to express what amounts practically to composition 
a matter by no means of rule but of artistic instinct. We 



PATTERN NOT STRICTLY REPEATING 



243 



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247. BOOK COVER IN WHICH BORDER AND FILLING DESIGN ARE 
INSEPARABLE. 



look at a panel and find it too long or too short. 
Instinctively we lessen its apparent length by lines in the 
horizontal direction, or add to it by upright lines in our 
composition. Or by a judiciously measured border we call 
attention to the more satisfactory proportions of the inner 
space. 

A border may be all the pattern that is wanted. For by 
the introduction of it we do not merely lessen the area to be 
filled, we fill it perhaps sufficiently. It is wonderful what a 
mere border will do. But the due proportioning of it is not 
to be prescribed it must be felt by the artist. And it need 
not be all of one width, nor yet confined within rigid marginal 
lines. 

There are roughly speaking two opposite ways of attacking 
a panel from the outside or from inwards. You may begin, 



244 



PATTERN DESIGN 




248. CENTRAL ORNAMENT GROWING OUT INTO BORDER 

that is to say, with the border and creep cautiously inwards, 
or you may boldly plant your first blow in the centre space 
and let the design spread outwards to the margin. How far 
the border itself extends inwards or the central ornament 
outwards, it is again for the feeling of the artist to determine/ 
A strong border may call for an emphatic feature in the 
centre of the field to keep it in countenance ; a heavy central 
feature may insist upon support 

The border may flow over from, or flow into, the space it 
surrounds. It may be so mixed up with the filling pattern 
as to be inseparable from it. It may exist, that is to say, only 



PATTERN NOT STRICTLY REPEATING. 245 




249 JACOBEAN PLASTER CEILING FROM PRINCE HENRY'S ROOM, 
17 FLEET STREET, LONDON. 

as part of the filling. There are patterns in which it is 
difficult to say where the border begins, still less whether the 
designer began or ended with it. All that is certain is that 
he did mean to frame in his panel or whatever it might be. 



246 PATTERN DESIGN 

So, too, there are repeating patterns which at the margins 
take slightly different form, so as not to be cut off, and which 
are gathered together at intervals, and especially in the centre 
of the panel, so as to become not so much repeating pattern 
as panel design in which there is repetition. 

An example of border and filling so closely knit together 
as to be dependent one upon the other occurs in the book- 
cover (247) on page 243 

There are indications of two borders, a broader and a 
narrower, corresponding to the dimensions of the diamond 
shapes which form the central feature ; but neither of them 
is perfect in itself the strapwork is so twisted together that 
to unwind it would be to do away with the design. It is 
tolerably clear how the designer must first have set out 
border lines and lozenges (which he happened to begin with, 
it would be rash to conjecture) and upon them schemed his 
strapwork, content in the end to suggest rather than actually 
to define bordering. 

In the niello pattern (248), where the central arabesque 
grows out into the border, it would be safe to say that the 
border lines were first set out, and that the overflowing of the 
central device into it was an afterthought as was the break 
in the inner marginal line, and the way it accommodates 
itself to the ornament. In the Jacobean ceiling (249) the 
design consists, in fact, of what is practically a diaper 
pattern. 

The Roman pavement pattern opposite (250) may be 
described as consisting of a very broad border framing a very 
small panel . But it may equally well be regarded as a diaper 
pattern gathered together in places, and finished off at the 
edges so as to result, more by accident than of set purpose, in 
a central panel with a broad border, enclosing within it 
smaller spaces again. 

The relation of these " patterns in which there is repeti- 
tion " to " repeated pattern," discussed in earlier chapters, 
is apparent enough, 



PATTERN NOT STRICTLY REPEATING 247 




250. ROMAN PAVEMENT MORE OR LESS GEOMETRIC DIAPER, 
RESOLVING ITSELF INTO A BORDER. 

A point to be observed is, that in none of these last designs 
would the results arrived at have been reached, but for the 
planning of the pattern in the first place upon the geometric 
lines insisted upon in the case of repeated ornament. The 
rules, therefore, which govern repeated pattern, though no 
longer applying to pattern in which repetition merely happens 
to occur, have still a bearing upon it. 

In discussing repeated pattern it was possible, and even 
necessary, to be somewhat dogmatic as to the lines of 



248 PATTERN DESIGN 

construction they are practically compulsory. In pattern not 
repeating there is no such compulsion : rules of composition 
cannot be laid down ; or, if they can, it is not necessary to 
follow them, perhaps not desirable to do so. All that the 
teacher can do is to point out safe lines of conduct and the 
danger of overstepping them. He will not, if he is wise, 
insist too strongly upon their observance. We must risk 
falling if ever we are to run alone. We learn by experiment. 
And then there is the charm of danger Who does not like 
to take his chance ? Art would be no congenial pursuit for 
a live man if he could not indulge sometimes in the luxury 
of running a risk. The sum of all one has to say about 
restraint amounts to little more than this : that a man should 
think before he ventures, look before he leaps, weigh well 
the odds before he wagers his artistic success. 

Admitting, however, all the delights of daring and of 
freedom, there is a charm in order too ; and a designer not 
susceptible to the charm is scarcely in his element in pattern 
construction. Experience goes to show that satisfactory 
design, seemingly quite unrestrained, is, when we come to 
examine it, systematically built up. Many a time the 
underlying system is frankly confessed and the confession 
wins at once our sympathy and ready condonation of some 
departure from it. It is as though the artist said in the 
lines of his design : I claim my freedom, but I have 
due respect for law and order. And we like him the better 
for it. 

But, though it is refreshing to find an artist not afraid of 
disturbing order upon occasion, the occasion should be some- 
thing more than just impatience of restraint. We live in days 
when it is as well to be on our guard against a spirit of 
anarchy, which takes at times possession of us, inciting us to 
repudiate not merely outworn laws the best of laws wear 
out in time but the very need of any law at all. The old 
ideas of art may need reform, revolution perhaps though in 
the last quarter of a century we have made, for good or ill, 



PATTERN NOT STRICTLY REPEATING. 249 

great strides towards freedom ; but the artistic anarchist, 
whatever his good intentions, is not working to that end. 
The reign of anarchy would surely bring with it the ruin 
of design the very existence of which is bound up with 
order. 



XVIII. EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN. 

Full-size drawings Small scale drawings and their use Methods of 
drawing Charcoal Chalk Roughing out Use of blackboard De- 
signing in colour in masses Pencil drawing Sponging down Colour 
designs in colour from the first Colour as a help in complicated design 
Form and colour Design only a map of form and colour Precaution 
against self-deception The evolution of a design Tracing paper 
Accident Mechanical helps Hardness Precision essential Body 
colour Water colour Systematic use of mixed tints Working drawing 
only a means to an end. 

PATTERNS are best designed full-size. The designer, it is 
true, must learn to work to a reduced scale It is necessary in 
order to secure the commission ; and if he is in the habit of 
working always to the same scale, there is not much fear of 
his misreckoning ; but the small scale drawing is useful 
mainly to save time and labour in setting out the lines, pro- 
portions, and repeat of a pattern, before it is determined to 
take it seriously in hand. It is as well not to carry it too far, 
nor yet to pledge oneself in it to anything very definite in the 
way of detail. 

A man's method of drawing, and to some extent the 
medium he employs, will depend upon the kind of thing he is 
doing. 

Charcoal is not a good medium in which to finish working 
drawings of patterns. It is not merely that it makes a dull 
and sodden-looking drawing, but that the lines are not precise 
and sharp enough for practical purposes. To work in char- 
coal is not fair to the workman into whose hands the drawing 

250 



EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN. 251 

is put. How is it to he expected of the engraver to render in 
hard wood or yet harder metal what the superior artist found 
it expedient to leave vague in soft charcoal ? 

Neither is chalk a very good medium, if, as is mostly the 
case, it is outline and not modelling it is necessary to express. 

But chalk and charcoal answer admirably for the first 
rough sketch of a design, especially in monochrome Work- 
ing in charcoal the designer is not tempted to put in detail 
prematurely or to niggle over " finish. " He can rough in 
his masses so as to see plainly their weight and balance, and, 
what is equally to the purpose, he can easily wipe them out 
again. The knowledge that he can dust it off easily gives 
him freedom in the use of charcoal ; there is nothing more 
paralysing than to know yourself definitely committed to the 
line you have put upon paper. A delightful way of starting 
a design is upon the blackboard. Drawing paper gets in- 
grained with charcoal , or chalk, or pencil . Even were erasure 
easier than it is, one is apt to pause before rubbing out what 
it has taken some pains to put upon paper. Many a design 
has fallen short of its promise because it went to the heart 
of the designer to undo his doing. He has no misplaced 
tenderness for chalk lines on a blackboard. He never hesi- 
tates to wipe them out ; but does it gaily and without regret. 
It is a pleasure rather. And he goes on wiping out until he 
has the design absolutely as it should be, or as he would have 
it The medium gives him a sense of greater freedom than 
charcoal, and his work is proportionately more spontaneous. 

It is a simple matter to trace the white chalk drawing on 
to paper, and either finish it on that, or transfer it to drawing 
paper. (Failing a blackboard, a piece of common American 
cloth answers the purpose almost as well.) 

For designs in colour the preliminary drawing may just as 
well be in coloured chalks or pastels. Working on paper, it 
is a good plan to splash in almost immediately the colour 
masses, in thin washes, foreshadowing as it were their dis- 
tribution One chooses, naturally, colours which can be 



252 PATTERN DESIGN. 

washed down to a mere stain on the paper The mam lines 
and masses settled, you may proceed to sketch in pencil or 
charcoal the details of the design If, as is very probable, 
these have to be rubbed out in part, there is always the stain 
of colour left to guide you in starting afresh ; or out of a 
number of tentative lines you define the chosen ones in colour. 
Something of the freshness of the first sketch may be pre- 
served in a drawing begun and finished on the same piece of 
paper if only you can keep the drawing clean and sharp 
enough for working purposes ; but that is not always possible. 
A design in \vhich the masses count for anything is better 
drawn in mass, not merely in line. It should be designed, 
that is to say, in colour or in solid black and white even 
though it may be necessary afterwards to make an outline 
drawing (on tracing paper perhaps) for the guidance of the 
workman 

You may rough out something in pencil, and carry it to a 
point at which the lines indicate fairly what you mean. But 
it takes all your concentrated attention to follow them, if they 
are at all involved (as in a sketch they are very likely to be) ; 
and if you have to lay the design aside for awhile, it is not 
easy, when you come back to it, to take up the thread of the 
pattern ; you may easily have lost meanwhile the very clue 
to the intention once so definite to your mind. The roughest 
daubings of colour are relatively easy to follow; they 
explain much more to you little as they might convey to 
others. And if there is' a point at which they are vague, 
it is the simplest thing to put in the lines necessary to 
show, for example, the overlapping of one shape by 
another. 

In a design blotted in however roughly in colour, you see 
at once where it is empty or too full, where wiry stalks want 
thickening or luxuriant details thinning, and can form a fair 
idea as to the way the notion will work out. It is to be re- 
membered that the masses shown in it will be, as a matter of 
fact, what on the wall or in the finished fabric will first strike 



EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN. 253 

the eye. You have only to get them right, and you foresee 
your effect. 

A point is often reached in design at which the lines and 
masses are all right, but the details will not do. It is a good 
plan in such a case to sponge it down, until only a trace of it 
remains. The vaguer the forms the more freely you can 
go to work in defining them, sketching them perhaps first in 
pencil or charcoal, and then filling them an m colour emphatic 
enough to make the superfluous stains upon the ground (left 
from the original sketching) of little or no consequence. 

Designs, then, for colour should be thought out, and are 
best worked out from the beginning in colour It is never 
advisable to finish a drawing and then first consider the 
colours of it They should by rights play their part (and it is 
a most important one) in the very plan of the design. 

Even in design for monochrome, colour may be helpful 
more especially if the scheme is at all involved. It is quite a 
common experience to get so many more or less experimental 
lines on your paper that it is almost impossible to see clearly 
what you are doing. In the case, for instance, of two separate 
but intertwining growths of ornament, it is not always easy to 
keep in mind which is which , but if they are drawn in two 
different colours, there is no confounding them. So also a 
main stem, to be disguised in the finished design by flowers 
and foliage breaking across it, is kept for the time being 
sufficiently in mind by a distinguishing tint. By colour, 
again, flower masses or other prominent features are defined 
in such a way that you can't help keeping their prominence 
in view, and realising the patch they make, and the effect of 
their recurrence. In complicated design some such device is 
almost necessary to enable the designer to keep the various 
strands of the pattern distinct which he must do from first 
to last, even though he should mean them eventually to be 
lost in the general woof of the pattern. There must be no 
confusion in his mind The one thing needful in design is to 
" know what you mean to do, and do it M and whatever 



254 PATTERN DESIGN 

keeps you to the point is helpful You may with great 
advantage sketch in the mass you want in one colour and the 
detail within it in another. The essential forms once for all 
committed to paper in a colour which may be trusted to leave 
an indelible stain upon it, you are free to experiment in 
detail with another vvhich can easily be sponged out. 

There is a temptation, against which the artist is not 
always proof, to get over harshness of line or form by the use of 
conveniently subdued colour. In dealing with forms already 
fixed that is often the only thing to do. (See Chapter XIX.) 
But where the forms are not fixed but remain, equally with 
the colour, to be determined by the designer, it is an evasion 
of the difficulty of design It must not be supposed that 
when you have designed a pattern which looks well in the 
colours of your drawing, you have done all that a manu- 
facturer requires of you. On the contrary, what he wants is 
a design which will work out satisfactorily in half a dozen 
different schemes of colour The problem is, not so much to 
design a colour-scheme, as to plan a pattern which will lend 
itself to being worked out in a variety of ways. To do this 
you must have clearly in mind the value and function of each 
particular colour, rather than its hue You must know, and 
should be able to explain, which colours are to assert them- 
selves and which to retire, which (if any) are of equal 
importance, and what is the relative value of each all this 
irrespectively of the charms of some one seductive colour- 
scheme which might easily lead a designer astray from 
practicality , for from the manufacturer's point of view a 
pattern depending entirely upon one colouring is not, as a 
rule, worth producing 

A word here as to the way designs should be presented 
to the manufacturer. 

A sketch should indicate either the design of the thing 
that is to be or its effect in execution. The artist's aim should 
be to show what he is going to do, and he should confine 
himself to that. Whatever he puts down on paper should go 



EXPEDIENTS IN PATTERN DESIGN. 255 

to make clear his meaning. A sketch is a promise, and it 
should be made in all frankness. Nothing should be done 
with the mere purpose of making the drawing look pretty 
As to the expedient of giving to it charms of colour or effect 
which the executed work will not have, it is about on a par 
with showing a sample of goods to which the bulk does not 
come up. A quite conscientious control of his imagination 
may possibly cost the artist his pains and lose him a commis- 
sion But, what then * Honesty is not a matter of policy, 
whatever the proverb may say. And, if it were, the only 
possible policy for an honest man is to go straight. The 
object of a sketch is to give an idea of something that is to 
be done. It should give a fair one. A certain vagueness is 
permissible, on the supposition that the idea has not yet 
reached a point at which it is possible to be definite, or on 
the understanding that the working drawing will make all 
clear 

A working drawing is no longer a mere promise but an 
undertaking, and a very definite one. It is pledged to tell 
the workman what he has to do. All that goes to his infor- 
mation is to the good. Whatever does not do that is super- 
fluous or worse ; it may serve to mystify or to mislead him. 

A practical designer will therefore not pay much heed to 
the prettiness of his drawing As an artist he will naturally 
present his drawing in such a form as to appeal to the eye. 
He will draw in firm and expressive lines, will choose his 
tmtb with taste, and float them on with dexterity ; but that 
is only by the way ; he will not hesitate to disturb the effect 
of his drawing if by so doing he can amend or improve the 
design. On the contrary, he will ruthlessly destroy its 
pleasing appearance, soil his even wash with corrections in 
body colour, erase, mend, patch his drawing, score it over 
with written notes of explanation, if only by so doing he can 
make more sure that there shall be no possibility of mistaking 
what he meant Indeed a very sweet production is almost 
open to the suspicion that it is not a perfect drawing to work 



256 PATTERN DESIGN. 

from ; for to the ideal working drawing there goes a precision 
which is apt to be rather hard in effect. The outlines are 
firmer than they will appear in, for example, the woven fabric, 
and the tints (to be blended together perhaps in the general 
effect of the material) are pronounced with a deliberation 
which in the executed work would be annoying. 

And, then, design is design that is to say experiment a 
seeking for something not always found at the first go off, 
found perhaps only after many failures, each of which leaves 
behind it traces not conducive to prettiness. 

The designer intent upon design cares too much for its 
effect in execution to be careful of its appearance upon paper 
and will sacrifice all immediate satisfaction to its satis- 
factory working out. He looks to the end in view and knows 
his drawing to be only a means to that. 

I prefer myself, in designing, let us say, a damask 
pattern, which in execution will be in two not very distinct 
shades of one colour, to make the drawing in colour upon 
white paper it might even be black on white. The stronger 
the contrast, the more flagrantly the faults in the design 
stand out. you see your work at its worst. Make it satis- 
factory in that pronounced form, and you may be sure it 
will be more than satisfactory in the not too obviously 
different shades of a colour supposing of course (what may 
be taken for granted when the designer knows his business) 
that you have all the while in view the relation of the two 
shades naturally resulting from the process of figured damask 
weaving. A design, on the other hand, worked out in very 
tender tints may blind not only the manufacturer (whom 
perhaps it is meant to deceive) but the artist himself to 
the defects of his design ; and if, as may happen, it should 
eventually be woven in contrasting colours, great may be 
the disappointment. 

It may not be politic to submit to the manufacturer a 
drawing in which the design is seen at a disadvantage ; but 
it is sometimes worth an artist's while to rough out his design 



EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN. 257 

in colour contrasting frankly and even brutally with the 
ground, and only when it has passed muster in that form to 
proceed to present it in guise attractive enough to please the 
purchaser. The use of colour (not essential to the purpose of 
the design) as a bait to catch the incautious customer, is a 
trick of the artistic trade, the resort to which, it is not unfair 
to say, implies some doubt of the designer's confidence in 
the resources of his own invention . 

There is no one way of preparing working drawings. De- 
sign being what it is, a process of evolution, one never quite 
knows how it will work out. Mistakes have to be made good, 
and the making them good may lead to wide departure from 
the method originally proposed. 

Supposing, for example, a design to be unsatisfactory in 
detail. The natural thing to do is to sponge it down, and 
work over it again , but if it happens not to come out it may 
be convenient to wash over it a deeper colour, just allowing 
the original lines to show through, and start afresh in body 
colour, this time, light upon dark the very reverse of your 
original intention. If, by the way, a pattern is meant to be 
printed light upon dark, it is better to draw it at once in body 
colour upon a deeper ground. There are, it is true, certain 
kinds of design (full, as a rule) the background to which it is 
as well to fill in last. But if spontaneity and freedom count, 
it is false tactics to work from the outline inwards, and especi- 
ally to outline lines : a line drawn with two strokes instead of 
one is likely to be relatively stiff. Further, it is not so easy 
to be sure of forms which you do not see in mass until the 
background is filled in round them. The surest and subtlest 
lines are drawn with one sweep of the brush. 

It often happens that in a first sketch, done at white 
heat, there is something you do not want to lose. In carrying 
the design to a finish there is every likelihood of losing it. 
And yet it is essential that in a working drawing every detail 
should be precisely defined. The sketchiness which is 
charming in a sketch has no charm for the man who has to 



258 PATTERN DESIGN 

carry it out, to whom in fact you leave the thankless task 
of doing what you dared not do yourself. A satisfactory 
compromise is to leave the sketch as a sketch, and to make a 
finished drawing on tracing paper over it. 

In so working there is no fear of undoing what was done. 
If the drawing does not come right at once, you have only to 
make another tracing, and another of that, if necessary, 
refining upon refinement until you have done your utmost. 
And all the while the original in its pristine suggestiveness 
is there to inspire you The full use of tracing paper is 
known only to the experienced. Students are sometimes 
taught at school not to use it That is all very well in drawing 
lessons; but in practical design it is contrary to reason. 
Certain lines have to be repeated or turned over, and the 
readiest and simplest way is to trace them. The quality of 
accidental difference obtained by freehand drawing, charming 
as it is, happens here not to be to the purpose. It is in fact 
a drawback. Repeats must fit, recurring lines must be level. 
To draw them without mechanical assistance is to take the 
greater trouble to do the thing less well which is absurd. 
Any hardness which results from mechanical accuracy can 
easily be corrected when once the necessary exactness has 
been ensured. 

Moreover, in a working drawing a certain degree of hard- 
ness is by no means the evil that it would be in a picture 
The drawing is here of no account in itself it is merely a 
means to an end- -absolute precision is essential to its proper 
interpretation. A vague draughtsman is the kind of genius 
for whom the manufacturer has no use. 

It is impossible to insist too strongly upon the necessity of 
what I may call plain speaking in practical design. It is the 
business of a working drawing to explain, not merely to 
suggest, the designer's meaning. The design which is not 
fit to put straight away into the hands of the workman is 
not so much a design as the promise of one. 

The suggestiveness which is charming in a sketch is 



EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN. 259 

unpardonable in a working drawing. It is the first duty of 
the designer to leave nothing vague or undetermined. If 
his habit is to feel his way towards what he wants, it may 
be necessary for him to make a new drawing to work from, 
or to supplement the first by an outline drawing which there 
is no mistaking. In a working drawing every necessary 
information must be given, and given clearly. The limits 
of a tint, for example (which perhaps in the result will merge 
into another), must be defined so that there is no doubt as to 
where it begins and ends. 

The theory, true or false, that there are no outlines in 
nature does not concern the designer. He will find that the 
man who is to work out his design must have them. You 
may leave, of course, a good deal to the workman you have 
educated and can trust ; but you cannot otherwise rely upon 
intelligent interpretation on the part of the man who comes 
after you ; and you have no right to expect him to define (as 
he must if you do not) the lines you yourself hesitated to 
make clear. If you give any one occasion to spoil your 
design, it is your fault, not his. Balance against the charm 
of sketchy drawing the disappointment of seeing it mangled 
in execution and you will not hesitate to harden your draw- 
ing to brutalise it somewhat, if need be, rather than 
that some one not in sympathy with you should perhaps 
vulgarise it. 

So essential to the serviceableness of working drawings is 
precision that some manufacturers insist upon their execution 
in distemper or body colour. The solid medium does make 
it fairly certain that the boundary of each separate colour or 
shade of colour shall be definitely marked enough to prevent 
any doubt as to what is meant. That much secured, there is 
no valid reason why the designer should not work in whatever 
medium is most sympathetic to him the one over which he 
has most control, or which best expresses the quality of colour 
peculiar to the material for which the design is to be made. 
Distemper gives the effect of wall-paper printing, water-colour 



260 PATTERN DESIGN. 

gives more the quality of printing in dyes, silk weaving or tile 
painting ; and a design for either of these last in body colour 
would give a false impression, which might be misleading. 
There is not the least necessity for showing in a working 
design the effect of the finished thing, but neither is there 
any occasion to suggest a quality alien to it. It is not as 
if distemper were the only means of definition. A wash of 
colour, it should be remembered, has only to be laid on wet 
enough, and it dries to a crisp outline so clearly marked 
indeed that the designer has to bear in mind that no such 
line will occur in the printed tint, which may therefore 
possibly need strengthening. So, too, pencil lines left in 
the drawing may be misleading, and should be carefully 
erased. 

The danger, however, of an artist's misleading himself is 
slight compared with his leaving to those who come after him 
any excuse for going wrong. A designer must not proceed 
as a painter would, mixing his tints, as he goes along, on the 
palette, or manipulating them on the paper he must prepare 
them before he begins, must keep them separate, and lay 
them as flat as need be. It does not matter much if they are 
not quite even, so long as there is no possibility of confound- 
ing them. His business is to furnish a definite, intelligible, 
and even unmistakable drawing. Any possible doubt should 
be cleared up by written notes even though they deface the 
drawing. Naturally a good workman likes to turn out a 
clean crisp drawing ; but that is not the point in a design. 
It is no part of the purpose of a working drawing to look 
pretty. Rightly considered, it is after all only a means to 
an end. Neatness itself is dearly bought at the expense of 
revision which would have done good to the design. A 
designer intent upon design should not be afraid to wipe 
out what he has done, or to spoil in order to perfect. The 
man who hesitates to sacrifice the prettiness of his drawing 
to its efficiency is lost. As to finish, a working drawing is 
finished when it tells the workman just what he has to do. 



EXPEDIENTS IN PRACTICAL DESIGN 261 

To that end, the only end of a working drawing, the designer 
must know precisely what he means, and say it plainly 
with emphasis even, that there may be no doubt about 
it. Any medium which allows him to do that will 
suffice. 



XIX. COLOUR 

Close connection between form and colour Effect of colour upon design 
Drawing should show not merely effect of colour but its plan A map of 
colour value and relation Differences that colour makes Casual colour 
Colour and material Geometric form softened by colour, accidental 
or cunningly planned Confusion of form by colour Emphasis of form 
by colour Change of colour in ground 

COLOUR and construction are more closely connected than 
is commonly supposed. The colour scheme is part of the 
construction. 

It is sometimes thought that a design may be schemed 
independently, and the colour left for after consideration. 
So, in a sense, it may, but the colouring will in that case 
possibly be very difficult to scheme. 

Left to the last, it may make or mar the effect. It should 
be planned from the first. You may safely rely upon it then 
to make good what would otherwise be a defect or a de- 
ficiency in the form, to enliven what would be dull, to loosen 
what would be too tight, to steady what would be too busy, 
to emphasise what might else be tame, to give an air of 
mystery to the otherwise obvious. You cannot rely upon it 
to do that when the drawing is once made, though even then 
an ingenious designer may do much to make amends for 
shortcomings, if not always to rectify mistakes. 

It is astonishing what havoc may be made with a design 
by colouring it amiss. Secondary or unimportant forms have 
only to be coloured insistently, and the design is at once 
pulled hopelessly out of shape. And this sort of thing 

262 



COLOUR. 



263 



\V W W w W <&) WJ 

^** ^^ 



(@(p 
W *W* ._ 

}Q^<S 





Diagonal. 



Horizontal . 



Alternating. 



251. 



DIAGRAM SHOWING EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COLOUR SCHEMES 
UPON THE SAME DESIGN 



happens continually where an artist's designs are coloured 
by some one who does not see (he would have perhaps to be 
himself a designer, and one in sympathy with the artist whose 
work he is tampering with, in order fully to see that"; what he 
was aiming at. 

This may be sometimes, or to some extent, the fault of 
the artist who colours his design without regard to the condi- 
tion (implied by commerce) that a design will be published 
in a variety of colourings for which he is in duty bound to 
provide. The fact is a design should be coloured, not so 
much to show its effect in certain colours (an effect perhaps 
impossible to be got in any others) as to give a map of the 
relations of a certain number of tints, to be employed in 
weaving, printing, or otherwise producing it. 

An artist should have clearly in his mind, and show 
clearly in his drawing too, which are the prominent and 
which the retiring tints, and what the order of their promin- 
ence or retiring as well as which of them (if any) are 
designed to balance one another; for it is all a matter of 
design. 

It concerns the designer again to know, and to show, 
precisely the part each tint is to play in a design. An outline 



264 



PATTERN DESIGN 




A B 

252 DIAGRAM SHOWING EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COLOUR SCHEMES 

colour may be introduced for example in the form of a patch 
also ; but, then, it must not be too dark, or it would empha- 
sise itself too strongly; and, with a view to its use for the 
double purpose, it may be necessary to draw a much broader 
line than would have been desirable if the colour could have 
been stronger. To tamper with the strength in the drawing 
is dishonest. 

The colour is, in short, part of the design, and should be 
so considered from the beginning. You may, of course, 
translate a design in one colour into a design in many ; but 
the happiest effects are not translations but spontaneous 
inventions. 

The lines of a pattern may be deliberately counteracted 
by the colour of it. A pattern planned on the chequer may 
be made, according to its colouring, to show perpendicular 
or horizontal, diagonal or cross stripes (251), the stripes of 
course asserting themselves in the direction of the continuity 



COLOUR 



265 




253 WALL-PAPER DESIGN IN WHICH THE SMALLER DETAIL, EVENLY 

DISTRIBUTED, GIVES AT A DISTANCE SOMETHING OF THE 

EFFECT OF A TINT 



COLOUR. 



267 




254. NET PATTERN IN WHICH FORM IS TO SOME EXTENT 
MODIFIED BY COUNTERCHANGE IN COLOUR. 



268 PATTERN DESIGN. 

of the colour. All this is so obvious as hardly to seem worth 
saying; but the bearing of it upon rather more com- 
plicated pattern, is so commonly lost sight of that it wants 
saying. 

The change of colour in a design such as that (252, A) on 
page 264 does not merely enliven it by variation, and as it 
were enlarge the scale of it, but gives a diagonal line which, 
except for it, would not appear. In monochrome the hori- 
zontal bands (emphasised in light and dark at B) are what 
would be most prominent; as it is they are practically 
neutralised. It is clear how easily the vertical line might 
equally be emphasised by alteration of colour in that direction 

(254). 

The mere fact that in the diagrams here given (252) 
change of colour is indicated by a different rendering of the 
form, goes to show the interdependence of form and colour 
how one may take the place of the other and do its work, 
how there are sometimes two ways of expressing the same 
thing, the same value that is to say. The smaller detail 
in the wall-paper (253) is designed to merge at a dis- 
tance with the background colour and give an intermediate 
tint defining the cusped shapes which are a feature in it. 

Instances occur in the interlacing strapwork, for example, 
in Celtic illuminated MSS. where the colour changes without 
other reason than that the painter thought fit to interrupt the 
too even tenor of the tints in a quasi -accidental way. Even 
in more flowing ornament the artist is at times tempted to 




255. CELTIC BORDER. ARBITRARY CHANGE IN COLOUR. 



COLOUR 269 




256. DIAGRAM SHOWING SYSTEMATIC DEPARTURE FROM THE 
SYSTEM OF COUNTERCHANGED COLOUR. 



diversify the effect by colouring it in patches quite irrespective 
of the form. 

The severity as well as the monotony of pattern may 
be mitigated by colour; and the designer may therefore 
often be severer and simpler in his drawing than he could 
dare to be but for his reliance upon its help. This is very 
apparent in the case of absolutely geometric ornament in 
which the form is tempered by colour. 

There is no doubt the use of geometric forms was en- 
couraged, say in Opus Alexandrinum, by the use of marble, 
in itself always unequal enough in colour to neutralise harsh 
form, or in Cosmati mosaic, where the little facets of glass 
catch the light at all manner of angles, and give a glitter of 
colour defying the utmost severity of form. But it is not 
merely the accident of colour which is used to counterbalance 
too great certainty of form. The Arabs, for example, were 
adepts in contradicting the ground-lines of geometric orna- 
ment and bringing into prominence forms which, but for it, 
one would never have suspected to be there. The colour in 
many of the tile mosaics in the Alhambra appears at first 



270 



PATTERN DESIGN 




257- 



DIAGRAM SHOWING SYSTEMATIC DISTURBANCE OF THE 
UNIFORMITY OF GEOMETRIC DIAPER 



sight to be quite casual. It proves upon examination to be 
most thoughtfully planned. Sometimes it is focussed into 
points which successfully break the monotony of intersecting 
lines. Sometimes it is disposed in rings and rays so effectu- 
ally disguising the lattice lines on which the pattern is built 
that it is only at a distance that they pronounce themselves. 

A simple and most effective plan of theirs is to devise 
what would be a counter change, but, as on page 269, whilst 
keeping the light units white, to vary the dark ones (256). 

A further subtlety is to make, say, half the dark units 
black and the remaining half alternately green and yellow. 

In the design (257) above, the main forms of the pattern 
are as it were framed in white; half the pointed cross 
shapes are in one colour, the others are alternately in three 
different colours. But the diagonal line they would give is 
almost neutralised by the steadying effect of the darker forms. 




259- ALHAMBRESQUE TILE MOSAIC SHOWING SYSTEMATIC DISTURB- 
ANCE OF GEOMETRIC FORM BY VARIATION IN COLOUR. 



274 PATTERN DESIGN, 

All this is very much to the good in a kind of pattern, I 
will not say too orderly, but too evidently in order. It gives 
you something to find out in it which is a great charm in 
pattern. 

In the more elaborate pattern (259) a similar system 
has been observed It is constructed on the lines of zig-zag 
bands (opposed to one another, so as to give diamond- 
shaped spaces between) crossed by similar zig-zag lines 
(similarly opposed). Mystery is given to it by making one 
of the bands in the upright and one in the horizontal direction 
black throughout, and breaking up the others alternately into 
yellow and green and yellow and blue. The result is a 
pattern m which the conspicuous features are strange, square- 
cut, twisted crosses, one-half of which are black, one-quarter 
yellow, and the other quarter alternately blue and green. 

The effect of colour upon design of a less formal character 
is shown in four very different renderings of the same pattern 
opposite (260) . At A the flowing line of the conventional scroll 
is emphasised, at B the horizontal tendency of the flowers and 
smaller leafage, at C the waved bands of ground space between 
the stems, at D bands in the opposite direction : and further 
variations might be played upon the same tune. Devise a 
pattern ingeniously and it is quite possible, by emphasising 
now this now that feature in it, to give the idea of quite 
distinct designs. 

It hardly needs to be explained how easily an obtrusive 
but necessary stalk or stem may be kept back by reducing it 
to a colour very nearly of the value of the ground tint, or how 
attention may be called to a flower by its brightness ; how, 
where two or more growths of pattern are intermingled, the 
lines of the one or the other may be strengthened by it ; how 
point may be given to a pattern by judicious variation in the 
colour of the ground. 

Change of colour in the ground wants very careful, not 
to say skilful, management. The difficulty of contriving it 
judiciously is in proportion to the extent of the change. The 



COLOUR 





260 



DIAGRAM SHOWING EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COLOUR TREAT- 
MENTS OF IDENTICALLY THE SAME FORMS. 



COLOUR. 277 

danger is, lest the patch of differently coloured ground should 
attract too much attention, not so much to itself as to the 
shape enclosing it. It is part of the game to enclose it, and, 
what is more, with circumscribing lines which really play a 
not quite unimportant part in the composition of the pattern 
not, for instance, with the casual outline of leaves con- 
verging towards it. 

The notion of varying the ground colour may be to some 
extent an afterthought, occurring only as the design pro- 
gresses ; but the shape as well as the position of the colour 
patch is best determined at an early stage of its development. 

Colour is equally of use in emphasising or in confusing 
form, either of which it may be expedient to do. 



XX. THE INVENTION OF PATTERN. 

Imitation and translation Memory and imagination Old-time content 
with tradition Modern self-consciousness Originality Conditions of 
to-day I nspirati onHow far nature helps The use of old work The 
designer and his trade The artist and his personality. 

A PATTERN, says the dictionary, is " something to be 
copied." Perhaps that is why design is so commonly 
confounded with appropriation, or at the most with adapta- 
tion. Translation is a trade of which no one need be ashamed, 
unless he calls it all his own ; but it is not design. 

And yet the literal interpretation of the word invention is 
the true one something not all ours, which we find, and make 
our own. 

What we think we imagine we more than half remember. 
Our wildest imagination is only a reflection of something 
which existed outside of us, in some sort a distorted image of 
it ; and the personal accent, which comes of the mind's mirror 
not having a flat surface, counts, according to the quality of 
the individual mind, for or against the version (or perversion) 
of the fact which we call imagination. 

Time was when designers less sophisticated than we are 
would accept or take for granted familiar lines to work on, 
and were free to devote all their energies to the perfection of 
pattern theirs only in so far as, by bettering it, they made it 
their own. Byzantine mosaic workers were content to play 
infinite variations upon familiar combinations of triangular 
cubes ; Sicilian silk weavers designed upon the lines of 
the stripe, and the later Italians upon the principle of the 

278 



THE INVENTION OF PATTERN 279 

turnover. Gothic textiles took the continual form of what is 
called the pine or cone pattern. There was a period when 
the diagonal stripe prevailed. In later stuffs the plan was 
for a century or more almost invariably on the lines of the 
ogee. And so they arrived at mastery. We are for our part 
too self-conscious, too anxious about the novelty of what we 
do. The dishing up of stale patterns is not of course design. 
But neither does originality mean novelty. An artist of 
initiative will show marked originality in the treatment of 
the oldest theme. He need not think about originality. If 
he has it in him his work will be original : he cannot help 
it. And it is that originality in spite of himself which 
alone gives charm to a man's work. 

Designers of the present day do not live under conditions 
the most favourable to their art. It is their misfortune that 
they are not left to work out the vein of design natural to 
them, but are continually called off in some other direction. 
What matter whether there is gold or silver in the neglected 
working, if it is brass or pewter which happens to be the 
fashion ? We are free neither to follow tradition nor to 
perfect a style, be it ever so distinctly our own. It is the 
glitter of newness that attracts. 

But in the very variety of the demands made upon us, 
there is some compensation for their unreasonableness. They 
excite our ingenuity. The difficulties put in our way provoke 
solution. To the making of a practical designer there goes 
an element of pugnacity he enjoys attacking a tough 
problem. An artist of feeble capacity may under favourable 
circumstances arrive at beautiful results. It is in reaching 
them in spite of adverse circumstances that he proves himself 
a strong one. 

Inspiration comes to a man from without as well as from 
within : every competent designer, you may be sure, has 
made an infinite number of studies, both from nature and 
old work. But he does not work from them, nor often refer 
to them, except perhaps to refresh his memory by way of 



2 8o PATTERN DESIGN. 

preliminary to design. The sight of them before his eyes 
would hamper him. 

Spontaneity of design is only then possible when the 
idea, whencesoever derived, is, so to speak, fluid in a man's 
mind so that what his eyes took in as fact flows out at his 
finger-tips in the form of fancy. 

Neither is it possible to design straight-away from nature. 
A designer acquaints himself with natural form, natural 
colour, natural growth and so forth, and especially with 
everything suggestive to him of ornament. But in designing 
he uses not so much these as memories of them. Just so 
much of nature as comes to him at the moment, and just 
that in nature which comes unbidden is to the purpose. The 
rest is overmuch. Ornament can digest no more. 

And as with natural motives, so with suggestions from old 
work. Tradition has become so much a part of a man that he 
is no longer conscious whence he had it ; does not realise that 
it is not entirely his own to make use of as he likes . Moreover 
it is dangerous consciously to borrow if he would keep alive 
within him the faculty of design. 

Towards practical design the first step is to realise how 
much is involved in working for even the simplest handi- 
craft or manufacture. Amateurs turn with not altogether 
unwarranted disgust from trade pattern sheets, with the 
comfortable conviction that they could do better than that 
at any rate. And so perhaps a person of taste might do, had 
he the requisite knowledge of technical conditions. Not 
having it, he cannot. 

All trades want learning. In the path of beginners and 
pretenders difficulties spring up one after another to hinder 
their advance. The inexperienced have no doubt they could 
design patterns, if only manufacturers would give them a 
chance. But it is not so easy as all that. Or rather, it is 
easy only to those who have been doing it all their lives. A 
designer, whatever his natural gift, is of no practical use 
until he is at home with the conditions of manufacture. It is 



THE INVENTION OF PATTERN 281 

only when he knows full well the difficulties of the case that 
he is in a position to avoid or meet them according to his 
courage. 

Over and above the mechanical construction of design, 
the designer must needs know all about the materials in. 
which, and the means by which, his designs are to be carried 
out. He must learn to work to given proportions and with 
the palette given him, restricting himself moreover to a very 
limited number of its colours. He has to take into considera- 
tion that his design will be judged from two opposite points 
of view, as seen in the pattern book, and in its place in 
a scheme of decoration; and, withal, he has to face the 
hurrying fashions which foolish or interested persons are 
continually trying to foist upon him. 

And then, when he has learned his trade, and when he has 
developed, let us hope, to the full the sense of beauty and the 
faculty of expression that may be his, he has further to be an 
artist. Unless he has something to say there is no great 
advantage in his being able to say it perfectly. The best in 
design is that which there is no discussing. It is there, or it 
is not. You feel and appreciate it, or you do not. To the ex- 
pression of that indeterminate something joy in nature, pur- 
pose, thought, human sympathy, feeling, poetry, whatever it 
may be there goes, it is true, the training of the workman ; it 
is in workmanship that the artist finds expression ; without 
it he is inarticulate ; but, say what we may about design and 
its mechanism, it is not simply the workman that interests 
us, nor the artist even, but the man at the back of it all. It is 
his personality which gives to art its real and lasting value ; 
not the conscious self he thrusts upon us, but the individual 
revealed, perhaps without his knowing it, not only in his 
work and in the high ideal inspiring it, but in the very way 
he goes about the quest of beauty. 



XXI. DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN. 
AN ADDITIONAL CHAPTER BY AMOR FENN. 

Sources of nineteenth-century design Augustus Welby Pugin and the 
Gothic revival Designs for the Houses of Parliament Mid- Victorian 
vogue Owen Jones and ancient Western and Oriental art Bruce J. 
Talbert Edwin William Godwin William Morris The Art Workers' 
Guild Walter Crane Lewis F. Day C F. A, Voysey Arts and 
Crafts Society E. W. Gimson Uart nouveau Continental designs 
W Lovatelh-Colombo, Pans Josef Hoffmann, Vienna Futuristic 
influence Maurice Dufrene Burkhalter Geometric motifs Stepanova 
Modernistic art Georges Valmier Strong colour effects Hermann 
Huffert 

THE following plates illustrate pattern designs from the 
mid- Victorian period to the present time, as far as possible 
in chronological order. 

In mechanically produced fabrics, particularly wall- 
papers, cretonnes and tapestry, the repetition of a unit is a 
technical necessity, and they have been modelled in the 
main on early Sicilian tapestries, though painted Chinese 
wall-hangings, which were imported into England in the 
seventeenth century, have also influenced design. 

An outstanding personality of the early nineteenth century 
was Augustus Welby Pugin, architect, designer, and writer 
on art. He was intimately associated with the Gothic 
revival, and was responsible for much of the decorative 
detail of the Houses of Parliament at Westminster, in 
conjunction with the architect, Sir Charles Barry. Two of 

282 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN 



283 




5 

JQ 




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^ H 
^ * 



w g 
< o 



pa 04 
. O 



284 



PATTERN DESIGN 





262 PANELLED TREATMENT BY OWEN JONES. 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN. 285 

his designs are illustrated (261, a), a flock wall-paper for 
the Houses of Parliament, and (261, b) a design for tapestry. 

Prevailing style or fashion has generally been a factor in 
design. The mid-Victorian vogue was to divide the wall- 
surface into panels : wall-papers were designed as fillings, 
with borders for the framing of these. About the beginning 
of the present century this fashion was revived. 

An example is shown (262) which was designed by Owen 
Jones, who was regarded as the greatest authority of his 
time on ancient Western and Oriental art. This design was 
exhibited by Messrs Jeffrey & Allen at the Industrial 
Exhibition held in Paris in 1867. Owen Jones* " Grammar 
of Ornament," a unique work of great value to students and 
all concerned with stylistic decorative design, was published 
in 1856. 

Another prominent name of this period is that of Bruce 
J. Talbert, whose personality was a dominating influence in 
the design of furniture and decoration. Though a follower 
of Pugin, he treated Gothic in a manner quite his own, which, 
though true to the style in principle, was comparatively free 
from formalism, and was rather a development suited to the 
domestic conditions of the period in which he practised. 
Later in life he exploited the Jacobean style, in which, 
however, personality is evident in the decorative details 
which display undoubted Japanese influence. Talbert's 
" Gothic Forms Applied to Furniture, Metal Work, and 
Decoration for Domestic Purposes " was published in 1868, 
and was followed in 1876 by " Examples of Ancient and 
Modern Furniture, Tapestries, Metal Work, Decoration, 
&c." This latter work illustrated several of Talbert's 
designs which were exhibited at the Royal Academy. 
His " Sunflower " wall-paper design (263), produced by 
Messrs Jeffrey & Co., was awarded a gold medal at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1878. This was extremely popular, and 
the sunflower became the dominant motif in the decorative 
phase known as aesthetic. 



286 



PATTERN DESIGN. 




263. " SUNFLOWER " WALL-PAPER BY B. J. TALBERT. 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN 287 

Contemporary with Talbert, Edwin William Godwin, 
though trained as an architect, was more conspicuous as 
designer, lecturer, and writer on applied art. The pre- 
vailing interest in Japanese art is apparent in his wall-paper 
design (264, b), which was produced by Messrs Jeffrey & 
Co. in 1873. 

The greatest name in modern times associated with 
craft work and decorative art is that of William Morris. 
As early as 1861 he helped to establish the firm of Messrs 
Marshall Faulkner & Co. in Queen Square, and in 1877 
opened offices and show-rooms in Oxford Street. The 
studios and workshops at Merton Abbey were established 
in 1 88 1. According to Lewis "F. Day ("Monograph on 
William Morris, " Art Journal, 1897), " The earlier work 
of the firm was, of course, pronouncedly Gothic in style ; 
so much so that the medals awarded to them at the Exhibition 
of 1862 were given ' for exactness of imitation ' of mediaeval 
work. The wording of the award may express more nearly 
the point of view of the judges than the aim of the exhibitors ; 
but it was inevitable that the new firm, starting when it did, 
and as it did, should begin by working very much in the 
old way. However, Morris soon made Gothic his own, and 
used it to express himself." 

The " Trellis " (265, a) was the first wall-paper designed 
by Morris, and was produced in 1862. The " Trenton " 
printed linen (265, b) is a typical Morris design in which 
Gothic tradition is evident. 

William Morris was one of the founders of the Art 
Workers' Guild, in company with Walter Crane, Lewis F. 
Day, and others. He was also prominent in the formation 
of the Arts and Crafts Society, which held exhibitions of 
members 1 work, of which the prevailing features were 
utility and simplicity, particularly in furniture, in which the 
proper use of material and good construction were the main 
considerations, as opposed to unnecessary ornamentation. 
The Society ruled that the names of designers and craftsmen 



288 PATTERN DESIGN 

must be published a tardy act of justice to a class of workers 
who were previously unknown outside trade circles. 

Walter Crane, painter, illustrator, and designer, achieved 
an early reputation in the illustration of children's books. 
His first wall-paper, produced by Messrs Jeffrey & Co. in 
J 87S, was designed as a nursery decoration, the theme being 
" Sing a Song of Sixpence. " Though reminiscent of 
Crane's illustrations, it is certainly decorative in treatment : 
the frank divisions and alternation of subjects exonerate it 
from criticism rightly bestowed on undesirably pictorial 
renderings. A gold medal for " great excellence and chas- 
tity of design " was awarded to his " Margarete " wall- 
paper, which was exhibited in Philadelphia in 1876. From 
1870 to about 1890 it was customary to divide the wall into 
frieze, filling and dado ; in more recent times the dado went 
out of fashion, but the frieze, either plain or decorated, has 
been retained. The " Margarete " could be used by itself, 
or as a filling, between Crane's " Alcestis " and the " Lilies 
and Dove " dado. These are illustrated on Fig. 129 of 
Sugden & Edmondson's " History of English Wall-paper " 
(Batsford, 1925). Another design, " Peacocks and 
Amorini " (266, a), was equally successful at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878. The " Macaw " (266, b) was designed 
in 1908. 

Lewis F. Day was contemporary with Crane, but had a 
much wider range in the sphere of applied art, in which his 
technical knowledge was extensive and supreme. Though 
his work was intensely personal, with a convention entirely 
his own, yet his attitude was catholic, and he was always 
ready to appreciate the work of others whether old or new. 
He was lecturer on Historical Ornament at the National 
Art Training School, which later became the Royal College 
of Art ; and for many years was examiner in several branches 
of design to the Board of Education, and Assessor in the 
National Competitions which were open to Art students 
throughout the British Isles. He was also for some time 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN. 



289 





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290 



PATTERN DESIGN 







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3 d 



B 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN. 



291 




PA 

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292 



PATTERN DESIGN 




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B 




a fc 

1 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN". 



293 




C. F A VOYSEY 





C. P. A. VOYSEY. 




LIBERTY & CO., LONDON. ROTTMANN & CO , LONDON. 

268. ENGLISH DESIGNS OF ABOUT 1900. 



294 



PATTERN DESIGN 




EL 



LOVATELLI-COIOMBO, PARIS 



LOVA1ELLI-COIOMBO, PARIS 



Mffiffififffl 





PROF JOSEF HOFFMANN LOVATELLI-COLOMBO, PARIS 

269 TYPICAL FRENCH AND GERMAN PATTERN OF ABOUT IQOO. 




mm 

MMMMMMMHHtaBMMMgMMMMMMk 

I/ I/ I/ I/ I/ 







270. MODERNISTIC CONTINENTAL PATTERN. 

a, MAURICE DUFRENE. b, BbRKHALTER. 

C AND 6, STEP AN OVA. d, POPOVA. 




271- GEOMETRICAL PATTERN 

BY GEORGES VALMIER, PARIS. 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN 297 

Editor of the Art Journal. Day's interest in art was 
universal, and it was at his residence in Mecklenburgh 
Square, in 1884, that the formation of the Art Workers' 
Guild was discussed, and four years later the Arts and 
Crafts Society. An indefatigable worker, he yet found time 
to write a series of books on pattern and applied art that are 
possibly the best ever written, and are invaluable to students, 
for whom they were intended. The earliest of these was 
11 Every Day Art," 1882, followed by " Nature in 
Ornament." Then came the trio of "The Anatomy of 
Pattern," " The Planning of Ornament," and " The 
Application of Ornament." The first two of these were 
enlarged and united in the present volume, " Pattern 
Design," first issued in 1903 ; the third was re-issued in a 
greatly extended form under the title of * c Ornament and its 
Application " in 1904. 

Two of Lewis F. Day's designs for wall-paper are shown in 
this volume. The "Roman" (267, a) and the " Como " 
(267, b) were both produced by Messrs Jeffrey & Co. in 1894. 

Design is regarded by many as a specialised form of art 
particularly applied art. This is a misconception. Design 
is necessarily incidental to any creative work, whether in 
painting, sculpture, or architecture. It would also appear 
to have an attraction for art workers who have not been 
specially trained as designers. Walter Crane, for instance, 
was a painter and illustrator ; Pugin, Owen Jones, Talbert, 
and Godwin were originally trained as architects. So was 
Charles Francis Annesley Voysey, who, notwithstanding his 
reputation for domestic architecture, is probably better 
known as a designer. He embarked on this phase of work 
owing to the difficulty of obtaining such furniture and 
accessories as would satisfy him and would be in harmony 
with his buildings. Voysey J s range in design embraces 
furniture, wall-papers, fabrics for hanging, carpets, fittings 
for lighting, and even table-ware and cutlery. In all his 
designs simplicity is the keynote, effect being obtained by 



298 PATTERN DESIGN. 

choice of material, good form, proportion, and strict regard 
to craft conditions, without any adornment that is not inci- 
dental to direct construction His pattern designs form 
admirable settings, though extremely conventional and 
restrained, and are conspicuous for his use of bird forms. 
Two typical wall-paper designs are shown (268, a and b). 

Prominent members of the Arts and Crafts Society as 
designers of furniture were Voysey and E. W. Gimson. 
Undoubtedly this Society had a profound influence on 
furniture-design, and helped to develop the phase known as 
" New Art." The design of wall-papers, textiles, and 
decoration generally was also affected. Detail became more 
rigid in arrangement and flatter in rendering. Two 
examples typical of this style, about the beginning of the 
present century, are illustrated : a brocade by Messrs Liberty 
& Co. (268, c) and a wall-paper produced by Messrs Rott- 
mann & Co. (268, d). Comparison between these English 
examples and contemporaneous French designs brought out 
by W. Lovatelli-Colombo, Paris (269, a, b, and d), will show 
the flamboyant tendency that culminated in the succeeding 
phase Part nouveau. 

A design by Josef Hoffmann, of Vienna (269, c), an ex- 
tremely simple arrangement, anticipates the more recent 
exploitation of purely geometric forms. 

The years 1914-1918 were naturally unfavourable to all 
forms of applied art, and it was not till after the latter year 
that activity in this direction was resumed. Even before 
the war there was some indication of change in taste, par- 
ticularly on the Continent, where a revulsion from Vart 
nouveau had already set in. Satiety demands change to the 
opposite extreme, and the new tendency was towards severity, 
as opposed to flamboyant licence. 

In some directions the futuristic movement in fine art 
became an influence, as is apparent in the designs shown by 
Maurice Dufrene (270, a) and Burkhalter (270, b). There 
is something distinctly courageous in the employment of 







272 PRESENT-DAY CONTINENTAL PATTERN DESIGN 

a AND b, TEXTILE DESIGNS BY GEORGES VAX M1ER, PARIS 

C, TEXTILE DESIGNS BY HERMANN HUFFERT, MENNA 

d, TEXTILF DESIGNS BY JOSEF HOFFMANN'S CL\SS, SCHOOL OF APPLIED \RT, \ IENNA 



DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERN DESIGN. 301 

simple geometric motifs in the design by Stepanova (270, c) ; 
but the two other designs (270, d and e), one by Popova and 
the other by Stepanova, are simply suggestive of primitive 
weaving. 

Change in taste is more marked since 1918, particularly 
in France, in the phase termed " Modernistic Art." This, 
however, is reminiscent unavoidably so, perhaps. It is a 
truism that there is nothing new under the sun, and it is 
generally possible to detect some stylistic influence in what 
is claimed to be new. Newness may merely consist of the 
manner of rendering. Certainly in modernistic design the 
influence of the Louis Seize and Empire styles can be detected. 

The designs of Georges Valmier which are shown on 
Plates 271-272 are interesting as departures from the ex- 
ploitation of traditional conventional ornament. The details 
are frankly geometric, and the interest is mainly that of 
colour. 

The tendency for some years for bright and even crude 
colour, not always harmoniously juxtaposed, is presumably 
due to post-war reaction. 

Geometric elements are less noticeable in the textile 
design by Hermann Huffert, of Vienna (272, c). The 
colour scheme is restrained but extremely effective and well 
disposed, consisting merely of black, white, and red. 

A variant of the " Landscape " pattern is shown in d 
on the same plate. This type has often been exploited 
but in many instances with doubtful success, generally 
erring by being too realistic ; the inevitable repetition of a 
unit incidental to mechanical production involves extremely 
conventional treatment in order to ensure a satisfactory 
pattern. 

The example illustrated is a product of Josef Hoffmann's 
class at the School of Applied Art, Vienna, and is an excellent 
treatment of a bird's-eye view of a city ; there is no attempt 
at actual representation the details are purely symbolic 
and well arranged as an all-over pattern. 



302 PATTERN DESIGN 

The modern tendency may not meet with universal 
approval, but, when sincere, it must be regarded as healthy 
and stimulating, and its exponents should be credited with 
courage in attempting to depart from formalised and hitherto 
accepted conventions. 

The development of art through the centuries has been 
a process of evolution. Through all the changing styles, 
out of the welter of influences and cross-influences, art is 
constantly reborn the same impulse, yet ever new the 
result of accumulated experience guiding, stimulating, and 
concentrating the effort of innumerable workers. Constantly 
changing, overcoming apparently irreconcilable differences, 
art is seen to be the work of many minds, pursuing steadily 
the same ideals. 



INDEX 



{The numerals printed in heavy type indicate the figure references of the 
illustrations } 



Alhambra, 23, 34, 45, 70, 168, 269, 

259, 272 
" Allover " pattern, 113, 170-172, 

196, 197 

Anglo-Saxon, SZF, 68 
Animal and bird forms. See chapter 



heading, p 86, 101, 175, 185, 
166, 222, 203, 240, 258, 26 1 A, 

64, 266, 268B 

patterns, 13, 17, 25, 19, 27, 20, 

1, 24, 34, 43-46, 64-67, 70, 50, 

2, 74, 75, SIE, F, 167, 168, 



264, 266, 268B 
Arab patterns, 13, 17, 25, 19, 27, 20, 

21, 

52, 

145-148, 164, 190, 166, 232, 256, 

269-276, 259 

Art Workers' Guild, 287, 297 
Arts and Crafts Society, 287, 288, 298 
Assyrian, 86s, 104 A 

Balance, 3, 8, 94, 97, 98, 183, 160, 

178, 200, 241 
Blackboard, 251 
Block borders. See Borders 
Block printing, 125, 148, 213-218, 

228, 229, 230, 222 

Book-cover, 247, 246 

Borders, 53 et seq , 76 et seq , 98, 99, 

226 et seq., 237 et seq , 243-246, 

247, 248, 250, 255 

Anglo-Saxon, 82F, 68 

Assyrian, 86s, io4A 

band, 78A, 57 

block, 55, 75, 76, 100-103, 82, 1090 

broken, 76, 55, 783, c, D, 57, 

73-84, 95-ioS, no 

Byzantine, 860, H 

Celtic^, 68, 87, 268, 255 

chain, 68 

Chinese, 57, 59, 8xG 

circular, 84 

concentric, 84 

continuous, or flowing, 54-73, 

76-94 

Coptic, 84D 

corners of, 53, 55, 76, 80, 82, 84, 

109 

counterchange, 93, 73, 95, 97, 99, 

75, 201, 181, 182 

cresting, 104, 79 

Cyprus, 82D 

direction of, 107 

Egyptian, 57, 78E, F, G, 83A, B, 

c, D, H 



Borders, English, 9oc, 71 , 940, D,io4H 

frame, 54, 79, xo8. So, 82 

French, 71, 9OE, IO4F 

fret, 55, 77, 78F, G, H, 57, 79, 59, 

80, 81, 67, 94A. B 

fringe, 106 

geometric, 75, 99 

GpJ&ic, 84E, F 

Greek, 77, 57, 79, 59, 80, 82A-E, 

83K, 840, 86E, F, 67, 94E, F, 
1048, c 

guilloche, 86, 67 

Indian, 848, 908 

interlacing, or plaited undulates, 

85, 86, 67, 87, 68, 69 

intermittent, 74, 96 

Italian, OOA, 1040 

Mexican, 57, 59, 8iA, B, c, D, 

8zG> H 

parallelism in border design, 92, 73 

Renaissance, 86D, 9OA, D, 1040, F 

S-shaped scroll, 77, 104011, 107 

savage art, 821, 83F 

spiral scroll, 55, 67, 69, 90, 71, So 

stop, 55, 57, 59, 78E, SOC-G 

strap, 69, 89 

turnover, 94, 73, 95, 77, 104, 79, 

105, 108, 82 

wave, or evolute spiral, 82, 84, 67, 

69, 88, 93, 94, 73, 80 

zig-zag, or chevron, 83, 67, 93, 73, 

Brick basis, 132, 133, 113, 114, 210, 

191, 218, 231 
Brocades, 180, x8x, 160, 2x8-220, 

198, 200, 2680 

Broken borders. See Borders 
BurkhaJter, 27ob, 298 
Byzantine, 19, 21, 860, H, 67, 68, 92, 

115, 127, 150, 278 

Carpets, Fronttspiece, 166, 235, 240 
Ceilings, 125, 148, 130, 159, 214, 

228, 229, 230, 216, 218, 249 
Celtic ornament See Borders 
Chain border, 68 
Chaldaean art, 67 
Chalk, 251 
Charcoal, 250, 251 
Chenille weaving, 246, 239 
Chequer, II, 8, xx, 74, 97, 135, 117 
Chevron, 83, 67, 88. See Zig-zag 



304 



INDEX 



Chinese, 57, 59, 8iG, 282 

Circle, 27 et seq , 38 et seq , 69-71, 

908, C 
Colour, 197, 198, 224, 235-240, 244, 

245, 251 et seq., 262 et seq , 

251-260, 280, 281, 301 
Continuous borders See Borders 
Coptic, 840 
Corners See Borders 
Counter change, 43, 63, 45, 67, 70, 

93, 73 95 97, 75, 99* ^7, l68 > 

145-148, 201, 181, 182, 254, 256, 

270 
Crane, Walter, 107, 130, 287, 288, 

266, 297 

Cresting See Borders 
Cretan design, 176, 154 
Cretonne, 183, 160, 217, 197 
Curvilinear design, 27 et seq , 37, 39, 

49, 33, 5 6 > 39, 86, in See 

Borders, Cresting, Interlacing, 

Ogee, Scroll, Wave 
Cyprus, 820 

Day, Lewis F , Mr Amor Fenn's 
references to, 287, 288, 267a, b, 
297 

Diagonal lines, 12, 15, 15, 18 et seq., 
24-30, 56 et eq , 39 et seq , 
112, 133, 113, 134, 114, 136, 
117, 154, 182-184, 158, 160, 

251, 252A, 264, 268, 257, 270, 
279 

Diagrams, Arab lattice, 190 

block-printing, 228, 230 

brickwork, 210 

change of colour, 244, 245, 251, 

252, 256, 257, 259, 260 

counterchange, 167, 201 

drop repeat, 122, 124, 125, 133, 

*35 3 *3 fi , 144-146, i49> 207,^ 
208 

evolution ot pattern, 169, 170, 205, 

2O6, 212-219, 222, 224, 238- 
243 

false start, 204 

geometric diaper, 203 

mechanical relation of various 

plans, 127-129, 134, 136 
pattern hung two ways, 121 

proving a pattern, 226, 227 

recurring feature , 192, 194 

repeat, 112, 113, 123, 151-158, 

160-164, 173, 174, 187. 188, 
225 

reversal oi design, 246 

scaffolding, 173, 174, *79, 184, 



Diagrams, step, 137, 144 

woven patterns, 235-237 
Diamond, 14, 15, 19-21, 24, 18, 19, 

23, 41, 43, 44, 50, 33, 35, 

53. 54, 38, 57-59. 4, 42-44, 
68, 69, 48, 50, 74, 52, 112, 
89, 91, 112-127, 103-108, 127, 
129, in, 113, 134, 114, 136, 
115-117, 119-121, 141, 145-147, 
125, 149, 139, 167, 168, 148, 
158, 163, 164, 190, 259, 274 
Diaper, 13, 15, 19, 21, 25-27, 20, 
21, 23, 3 2 , 34, 25, 36, 28, 38, 
39, 29, 4<>-55, 31-38, 5 6 , 39, 43, 
63, 45, 6 7 76, 103, 113, 101, 

138, 164, 168, 193, 202, 203, 
182, 237, 227, 242, 249, 246, 258 

Drop repeat, 53-55, 37, 38, 73, 9*, 
119, 100 et seq., 121-125, 138, 

139, 140, 122 et seq., 144-149, 
163, 188, 207, 208, 190, 217, 
195, 196, 208 et seq , 226, 211 

Dufrene, M., 27oa, 298 
Dutch design, 175, 154 

Egyptian borders, 78E, F, G, 57, 

83A, B, c, D, H 
English borders, 900, 71, 940, D, 

I04H 

Evolute spirals, 67, 94A 

Evolution of pattern, 39 et seq , 86 

et seq , 167 et seq , 188 et seq. 

See Diagrams 

False drop, 141, 142, 120, 121 

Finish, 201 

Floor patterns, 203, 182-184 

Floral design, 69, 71, 73, 117, 126, 
107, 130, 125, 149, 134, x6x, 
165, 176, 154, 182-184, 186, 
160, 195, 170, 172, 196, 197, 
200, 181 et seq., 205-209, 211- 

- 217, 231, 234, 244, 245, 239, 
251-254, 260, 263, 285, 265, 268 

Flowing borders. See Continuous 
borders 

diaper, 49, 33 

Foliation, 831, K, 84, 850, 90, 91, 73, 
84, 85, 150, 128, 177, 178, 151, 

155, 173, 174, i99, 200, 179, 

218-220, 198, 200, 239, a64a, 

265, 267 

Frame, 53, 79, 108, 82 
" Free " design, 191, 167, 168, 178, 

200 
French designs, goE, 71, IO4F, 186, 

160, 161, 191, 168, 6pa, b, d, 

298, 301 



INDEX. 



305 



Fret pattern, 22, 55, 77, 78F, G, H, 
57, 79, 59> So, 81, 67, 94A, B, 76, 
143, 120 

Frieze, 53, 80, 288 
Fringe, 79, 106, 80 

Geometric basis of design, 3, 5, 8, 10 
et seq., 18 et seq., 23 ** j*y , 27 
et seq , 39 et seq , 67, 88-91, 102 
etseq., 122 etseq., 139, 162 etseq., 
167 rf Jtf^.j 211 / j^ , 241 et seq., 
269-274, 298, 301 
Geometric diaper, 202, 203 182, 257, 

270 

Gimson, E. W , 298 
Glazier, R , design by, 165 
Godwin, E. W ,287, 264, 297 
Gothic, 52-55, 36-38, 84E and F, 91, 
73, 93, "6, 171, 151, 193, 279 

revival, 282, 285, 287 
Governing lines, 173, 174, 198 

purposely lost, 173, 199, 178, 179 

Greek. See Borders 

Grotesque, 222, 203, 223 
Guilloche, 86, 67 

Herringbone, 169, 151 

Hexagon, 19-22, 26-30, 29, 30, 50, 

5', S3, 35-37, "2, "3, 9i, 134, 

115-117 
Hoffmann, Josef, 2690, 298, 27 2d, 

301 
Horizontal lines, 10, 4, 116. 175, 177, 

154, 155, 184, 186, 160, 161, 251, 

252B, 264 

Huffert, H , 2720, 301 

Indian, 28-30, 21, 22, 843, 69, 903, 

71, 114,91 

" Inhabited " pattern, 200, 221 
Inspiration, 205, 279 
Interlacing, n. 9-14, 13, 23, 33, 

42-47, 51, 85, 86, 67, 87, 68. 69, 

268, 255 
Italian, go A, 1040, no, 84, 170, 

151, 278, 279 

Jacobean, 249, 246 f 

revival, 285 

Japanese, x, 4, 13, 22, 102, 258 

(i and 3), 283, 285, 264b 
Jeffrey & Co., 285, 287, 288, 297 
Jones, Owen, 262, 285, 297 

Key-pattern. See Fret, Swastika 

Lattice, 11, 8, 13, 15, 18, 22, 28, 29, 
30, 21 , 22, 24, 34, 43, 64, 65, 
49-52, 71-75, "4> 9i, 164-190, 
1 66, 270 See also Scaffoldings 
and Trellis 



Liberty & Co , 268c, 298 
Lovatelh- Colombo, \V , 269a, b, d, 
298 

Manufacture, designing for, 2, 88 et 
seq., 92 ef seq., loo et seq , 122 
et seq , 200, 213 et seq , 250 et seq., 
280, 281 

Masonry basis. See Brick basis 
Mexican designs, 57, 59, 8iA, B, C, D, 

820, H 

Morns, William, I, 200, 287, 265a, b 
Mosaic, 46. 48, 68, 69, 59, SSE, 246, 
250, 259, 273 

Napper, Mr Harry, 23, 178, 183,211, 



Octagon, 31-34, 23 etseq , 38, 29, 60, 

42, 62, 89, 164, 190 
Ogee, 50, 51, 36, 39, 119, 143, 120, 

I2i, 171, 178, 151, 152, 218-220, 

198, 279 

Open spaces in design, 6, 2, 134, 162 
Opus Alexandnnum, 269 
Oriental pattern, 43, 48-50, 103, 88. 

See also Arab, Chinese, Indian, 

Japanese, Persian 
Outline, 200 

Panel, 3, 142, 241 et seq., 262, 285 

Paper-folding, 92 163-166 

Pattern, what it is, I et seq 39 et seq., 

86 et seq*, 167 et seq , 241 ef seq., 

278 et seq 

Pentagon, 25, 26, 36, 27 
Persian, Frontzsptece , 166, 200, 240 
Pilaster, 53, 80, 202, 222, 203 
Pite, Prof Beresford, loo, 121 
Plaiting, 3, 11-13, 10-14, 57, 8$A, B , 
j c, 68 
Claiming, 4-9, 84, 85, 87-91, 100 et 

seq., 122 et seq , 139, 167 et seq., 

203, 213 et seq , 241 et seq.. 250 

et seq. 

Popova, 27od, 301 
Printed fabrics, 23, 175, 154, 213, 

214, 218, 222, 2658 See also 

Cretonne 

Printing, block, 213, 228-230, 222 
roller, 213, 218 
Proving a pattern, 208 et seq 
Pugin, A W., 282, 26ia, b, 285, 

297 
Purdon Clarke, Sir C , 163 

Quatrefoil, 33 



36 



INDEX. 



Radiating pattern, 23, 34, 162, 163, 
189 

Renaissance, 86D, poA, D, 1040, F, 
232 

Repeat, I et seq.. 43, 54, 55, 82, 84, 
139 et seq , 173, 174, 162 et seq , 
187 188, 167 et seq., 191 etseq., 
208 et seq , 225 et seq. See also 
Drop repeat and Turnover 

Repeats, small, 122 et seq., 151 et seq 

Roller-printing, 213, 218 

Roman mosaic. See Mosaic 

Rottmann & Co., a68d, 298 

Salembier, 9OE, 71 

" Sateens/' 128 et seq. 

Savage art, 821, 83F 

Scaffoldings, 33, 47, 36, 139 et seq , 

169 et seq., 248. See Lattice, 

Trellis 

Scale pattern, 33, 48, 49, 50, 35 
co -scroll, 77, 1040, D, E, G, H 
Scroll ornament, 67, 69, 90, 71, 77, 

107, 80, 174, 203, 223 
Sexfoil, 33 

Sicilian, 185, 160, 278, 282 
Square, 10 et seq., 8, 15-18, 22, 23, 

31, 23, 32, 35, 40, 42, 45, 47, 

32, 33, 55, 38, 43, 64-66, 52, 75, 
86, 88, H2, 89, 91, 100 et seq , 
122-125, 127-129, 133, 135, 
136, 117, 143, 128 et seq , 151 et 
seq , 162 et seq , 187-190, 168, 
192, 169, 194, 202, 203, 182-184; 
and see Chapter XVI 

Star, 19-22, 26, 28-30, 25, 36, 53, 

54, 37, 38, 40, 57-62, 40, 42, 49, 

72, 73, 164, 190 
Steadying lines, 173, 198 
Step pattern, 105, 131, 113, 137, 117, 

144, 125, 188, 163 
Stepanova, 2700, e, 301 
Stop borders. See Borders 
Strapwork, 69, 89, 268, 255 
Stripes, 5, '6, 8, 10, 4, 6, 7, 15, 28, 

105, 113, 170, 195, 251, 252, 264, 

278, 279 

Swastika, 66, 46, 68, 69, 48 
System, 4, 9, 88, 128 et seq., 168 et 

seq , 203, 242, 248 

Table-linen, 170, 195, 222, 233, 228- 

235, 239-243, 256 
Talbert, B. J., 285, 263, 297 
Tapestry, 89, 166, 142, 282, 26ib, 

285 



Textiles, 166, 142, 222, 282, 26ib, 
285, 264a, 26sb, 271, 298, 
272. See also Brocades, Carpets, 
Chenille, Cretonne, Printed 
fabrics, Tapestry, Velvet 

Tiles, 21, 34, 70, 49, 52, 75, 131, 132, 
113, 117, 118, 140, 162, 187-189, 
163, 214, 218, 231, 260, 269, 270, 
259, 274 

Tracing-paper, 258 

Tradition, 88, 278 et seq. 

Trefoil, 33 

Trellis, 31, 23, 26, 35, 47, 57, 176, 
154, 155, 287, 26sa. See also 
Lattice, Scaffoldings 

Triangle, 18 et seq , 24 et seq., 74, 52, 
75, 88, 89, 112, 114, 91, 278 

Turnover, 55, 38, 74, 52, 94, 73, 95, 
77, 104, 79, 105, 108, 82, 92 et 
seq., 115 et seq , 165, 166, 175, 
154, 164, 189, 190, 166, 232, 222, 
233, 235, 236, 227, 239, 240, 
231, 241, 279 

Turn-round, 162 et seq , 187 et seq 

Udine, Giovanni da, no, 84 
Undulate. See Wave lines 
Unit of design, turned over but not 
repeating, 108, 82, 98, 120 

Valmier, G , 271, 272a, b, 301 
Velvet, 171, 151, 181, 160, 194. 198, 

200, 218-220 
Vertical lines, 165, 186, 180, 264, 

254, 268 
Viennese designs (modern), 240, 258, 

272, 301 

Vitruvian scroll. See Evolute spiral 
Voysey, Mr C. F. A , 268a, b, 297, 

298 

Wall-papers, 5,6, 99, 100, 121, 107, 

13, *99, 20 9 , 214, 2l8, 222, 234, 

253, 268, 282, a6xa, 262, 263, 
285, 287, 288, 264b, 265a, 266, 
267, 268a, b, d, 297, 298 

Wave lines, 37, 28, 51, 35, 37, 39, 
82, 84, 85, 67, 69, 88-91, 94A, 
73, 80, 172, 152, 154 

Weaving, 3, 11, 89, 92-94, 115-118, 
128 et seq , 213, 218, 232, 233, 
222 et seq , 235-246, 260, 278 

Working drawings, 254 et seq. 

Zig-zags, 10, 5, 20, 37, 28, 61, 42, 83, 
67, 93, 95, 73, 77, >4E. **, G, 
169-171, 151, 164, 190, 259, 274 



Printed in Great Britain at THE DARIEN PRESS, Edinburgh 



A Selected List of 

BATSFORD BOOKS 

relating to 

^Architecture, Fine and 
Decorative Art, Interior 
Decoration, Gardens, Social 
History, Crafts, Applied 
Science, Engineering, etc. 




Published by B. T. BATSFORD LTD. 

BooJkseJJers and 'Pttbhslsers by appointment to H.M. Tie Quern 



CONTENTS 



THE NEW ARCHITECTURE ------- 

HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE ------- x ^ 

HISTORIES OF ARCHITECTURE - - - - - - -1-2 

CLASSIC ARCHITECTURE AND THE ORDERS- - - - - 2-4 

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE - - - - - - -3-5 

MEDIAEVAL ARCHITECTURE _______ 4.5 

CHURCHES AND CHURCH CRAFTS 4-6 

PERIOD DECORATION AND FURNITURE - - - - 7-11 

OLD CRAFTSMANSHIP -------- 8-12 

FINE ART ----------- 11-13 

OLD ENGLISH LIFE- -------- 13-15 

TRAVEL AND TOURING- ------- i 5 _i6 

GARDENS ----------- 16 

SOCIAL LIFE OF THE PAST ------- i 5 - 20 

COSTUME ----------- 16-17 

HISTORIC ORNAMENT -------- 20-21 

DECORATIVE DESIGN -------- 21, 22 

MANUALS ON DRAWING ------ 22, 23, 26 

ART ANATOMY AND FIGURE STUDIES - - - -24,25 

LETTERING ---------- 2J 

ARTS AND CRAFTS --------- 26 

NEEDLEWORK, EMBROIDERY, TEXTILES - - - - 27, 28 

THE MODERN HOME ------ _ 28 , 29 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING AND PRACTICE 29 

PRACTICAL CRAFTS- -------- Z9 

NOTE. This list comprises about 190 books on tbe subjects shown above 
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MODERN ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN 



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REPRESENTATIVE BRITISH ARCHITECTS OF THE 
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By PROFESSOR C. H. REILLY, M.A., F.R.I.B.A , Director of the Liverpool 
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An Account of Twelve Typical Distinguished Figures, their Careers and 
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CATION IN ITALIAN, FRENCH, ENGLISH, and AMERICAN COLONIAL. By 
ARTHUR STRATTON, F S A. With an Introduction by A TRYSTAN EDWARDS, 
A.R.I.B A. Illustrated in a Series of 80 full-page Plates from Drawings, 
mostly specially prepared, including a complete series of Vignola's Orders, 
and rendered examples of French, Italian, and English buildings. With 
full historical and practical notes and numerous Text Illustrations 4to, 
cloth, gilt, or in portfolio, 215 net; or in 3 parts CLASSIC, ITALIAN, 
and APPLICATIONS, half-bound, 8s. net each. 

A. NEW AJSfD IMPORTANT SERIES OF SCHOOL WALL CHARTS 
In Two Series now ready ^ consisting 0/2.5 large lithographed Plates, 30 in. by 
20 tn. Price Complete 2.$s net on stout paper, or 3 zs. od. net mounted on linen, 
wttb bound edges. Single diagrams y is. ^d. net each, or mounted > zs 10^. net each. 
Introductory Handbook to each Series, is 6d. net each, stiff paper covers, 2 r 6d. 
net eacb> cloth, lettered. 

THE STYLES OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE 

A SERIES OF COMPARATIVE WALL OR LECTURE DIAGRAMS. For Schools, 
Teachers, Students, etc. By ARTHUR STRATTON, F.S A , F.R I.B.A. 
Series I : THE MIDDLE AGES (Saxon Times to the Start of the Tudor 
Period). Consisting of 13 large double crown Plates, 20 in. by 30 in. 
clearly lithographed from the Author's specially prepared Drawings. 135. 
net paper, 325 net mounted 

Series II : THE RENAISSANCE (Tudor, Elizabethan, Stuart, and Georgian 
Periods). Comprising 12 large diagrams, as in Series I. 125 net paper, 
305. net mounted. 

The 32 pp. Introductory Handbooks contain reduced reproductions of all 
the Plates with all their sources noted, and an outline account of each style 
with numerous further Line Illustrations in the text. 

THE GROWTH OF THE ENGLISH HOUSE 

A short History of its Design and Development from noo to 1800 A.D. 
By J ALFRED GOTCH, F.S A., PP R I B A Containing 300 pages, with 
over 150 Illustrations from Photographs, and many pictures in the text 
from Measured Drawings, Sketches, Plans, and Old Prints. Second 
Edition, revised and enlarged Large crown 8vo, cloth, gilt. 123. 6d net. 

EARLY CHURCH ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE 

With special Reference to Timber Construction and Decoration. By 
JOSEF STRZYGOWSKI, Author of "Origin of Christian Church Art," etc. 
Dealing with PRE-ROMANESQUE ART OF THE CROATIANS, WOODEN ARCHI- 
TECTURE IN EASTERN EUROPE, HALF-TIMBER CHURCHES IN WESTERN 
EUROPE, THE MAST CHURCHES OF NORWAY; ROYAL TOMBS IN SCANDINAVIA. 
With 190 Illustrations. Royal 8vo, cloth, gilt. 215 net. 

"Present-day writers on architecture cannot be said to be exactly exciting ; but Prof 
Strzygowski is the exception For vigour and vehemence he is unsurpassed A remarkable 
book, -with very much to study m it, if not always to convince " THE DEAN OF WIN- 
CHESTER in The Sunday Times. 



HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE 



THE STORY OF ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND 

By WALTER H. GODFREY, F.S.A , F.R I.B A, A popular illustrated account, 
in which the aims and methods of Architectural Design are simply explained, 
and linked up with the social life of the time. In Two Parts: I. Early and 
Mediaeval, to 1500, chiefly Churches, II. Renaissance, 1500-1800, cniefly 
Houses. Demy 8vo, cloth. 6s. 6d. net per part, or the two volumes bound 
in one, izs 6d net. 

I. PRE-REFORMATION, THE PERIOD OF CHURCH BUILDING 
Illustrated by 133 full-page and smaller Photographs and Drawings. Large 
crown 8vo, cloth. 6s. 6d. net. 

H, RENAISSANCE, THE PERIOD OF HOUSE BUILDING 
Illustrated by 150 full-page and smaller photographs and drawings. Large 
crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. 6d. net. 

NEW EDITION REVISED slND ENLARGED NOW RJ&4DY OF 

THIS GREA.T ST^iND^RD WORK 

THE DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE OF ENGLAND 
DURING THE TUDOR PERIOD 

Illustrated in a Series of Photographs and Measured Drawings of Country 
Houses, Manor Houses and Other Buildings By THOMAS GARNER and 
ARTHUR STRATTON, F.R.I.B.A. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, 
comprising 210 Plates, mostly full page, finely reproduced in Collotype, and 
250 pages of Historical and Descriptive Text, including 462 illustrations 
or Additional Views, Plans, Details, etc., from photographs and drawings, 
making a total of over 800 Illustrations in all. In two volumes, small folio, 
buckram, gilt. 9 95. net the set. (The volumes cannot be obtained 
separately.) 

THE SMALLER ENGLISH HOUSE FROM THE RES- 
TORATION TO THE VICTORIAN ERA, 1660-1840 
By A. E, RICHARDSON, F S.A , F.R I.B.A , and HAROLD DONALDSON 
EBERLEIN, B.A. Treating of the Characteristics and Periods of Style, the 
Evolution of Plan, Materials and Craftsmanship: Roofing, Windows, 
Ironwork, Fireplaces, Staircases, Wall Treatment, Ceilings With over 
200 Illustrations, many full page, from Photographs and Drawings. Demy 
4to, cloth, gilt. Cheaper reissue, 1 53. net. 

ENGLISH GOTHIC CHURCHES 

THE STORY OF THEIR ARCHITECTURE. By CHARLES W. BUDDEN, M.A. 
A simple, informative account of the Planning, Design, and Details of 
Parish Churches, Cathedrals, etc., 1066-1500, including Chapters on Local 
Building, Towers, Spires, Ornaments, etc. Illustrated by 53 Plans and Line 
Diagrams, and 40 Photographic Plates of So Views and Details, including 
a County List of the chief Churches worth seeing. Crown 8vo, cloth, 
cheaper reissue, 53. net. 

ENGLISH CHURCH WOODWORK AND FURNITURE 

A Study in Craftsmanship from A.D. 1250-1550. By F. E. HOWARD and 
F. H. CROSSLEY, F.S.A. Illustrating, in over 480 examples from Photo- 
graphs, the Development of Screens, Stalls, Benches, Font-Covers, Roofs, 
Doors, Porches, etc., with details of the Carved and Painted Decoration, 
etc., etc. Second and cheaper Edition, revised, with a new series of 16 
Collotype Plates. Crown 4to, cloth, gilt. 255. net. 

"As a treasury of examples, a large proportion of them almost unknown, and as a 
compendium of information and research, it is a possession of special interest and 
value. . ." The Times Literary Supplement. 



CHURCHES AND CHURCH CRAFTS 



ENGLISH CHURCH FITTINGS AND FURNITURE 

By the Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., F.S A. A Popular Survey, treating of Church- 
yards, Bells, Fonts and Covers, Pulpits, Lecterns, Screens, Chained Books, 
Stained Glass, Organs, Plate and other features of interest. With upwards 
of 250 Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings. 8vo, cloth, gilt. 
New and cheaper reissue. izs. 6d. net. 

ENGLISH CHURCH MONUMENTS, A.D. 1150-1550 

By F. H. CROSSLEY, F.S.A A survey of the work of the old English crafts- 
men in stone, marble, and alabaster. Containing over Z50 pages, with 
upwards of 350 Illustrations, from special Photographs and Drawings. 
Crown 4to, cloth, gilt. Cheaper reissue 2 is. net. 

ENGLISH MURAL MONUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES 

A Collection of Eighty-four Full-page Photographic Plates of Wall Tab- 
lets, Table Tombs, and Headstones of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Centuries, specially selected by HERBERT BATSFORD for the use of Crafts- 
men. With an Introduction by W. H. GODFREY, F.S A. Crown 410, cloth, 
gilt. I5s.net 

OLD CROSSES AND LYCHGATES 

A Study of their Design and Craftsmanship. By AYMER VALLANCE, M.A., 
F.S A. With over 200 fine Illustrations from specially taken Photographs, 
Old Prints, and Drawings Crown 4to, art linen. Cheaper reissue 125. 6d. 
net. 

THE "COUNTY CHURCH" SERIES 

Edited by the Rev. J C. Cox, LL.D., F.S A. Twelve volumes, each con- 
taining numerous Plates from Photographs, and Illustrations from 
Drawings m die text. F'Cap 8vo, cloth, gilt. 35. net per volume. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE AND THE ISLE OF ELY By C. H EVELYN- 
WHITE, F.S.A. 

CORNWALL. By J. C. Cox, LL D., F.S. A. 

CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND. By J. C Cox, LL.D.,F.S.A. 

ISLE OF WIGHT. By J. C. Cox, LL D., F S.A. 

KENT (2 Vols sold separately). By F. GRAYLING. 

NORFOLK (z Vols ). Second Edition, revised and extended By J. C. 
Cox, LL.D , F S A. (Now out of print.} 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. By J. C. Cox, LL D., F.S A. 

SURREY. By J. E. MORRIS, B A. 

SUFFOLK (2 Vols. sold separately). By T. H. BRYANT. 

OLD SILVER OF EUROPE AND AMERICA 

From Early Times to the XlXth Century, By E. ALFRED JONES. A Survey 
of the Old Silver of England, America, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, 
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
etc. With a Chapter on Spurious Plate and 96 Photogravure Plates, com- 
prising Illustrations of 537 subjects. Cheaper reissue. Crown 4to, art 
canvas, lettered in silver. 2 is. net. 

ENGLISH LEADWORK: ITS ART AND HISTORY 

A Book for Architects, Antiquaries, Craftsmen, and Owners and Lovers of 
Gardens. By Sir LAWRENCE WEAVER, F S A. Containing 280 pages, with 
441 Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings. Large 4to, art linen, 
gilt. 308 net. 



OLD WOODWORK ^4JVP FURNITURE 



ENGLISH INTERIORS FROM SMALLER HOUSES OF 
THE XVTETH TO XlXrn CENTURIES, 1660-1820 
By M. JOURDAIN. Illustrating the simpler type of Design during the 
Stuart, Georgian, and Regency Periods. Containing 200 pages, and 100 
Plates, comprising 200 Illustrations, from Photographs and Measured 
Drawings of Interiors, Chimney-pieces, Staircases, Doors, Ceilings, 
Panelling, Metalwork, Carving, etc , from minor Country and Town 
Houses. With Introduction and Historical Notes. Cheaper reissue. Large 
4to, cloth, gilt. 155. net. 

ENGLISH RENAISSANCE WOODWORK, 1660-1730 

A Selection of the finest examples, monumental and domestic, chiefly of 
the Period of Sir Christopher Wren. By THOMAS J. BEVERJDGE. A Series 
of 80 fine Plates from the Author's measured drawings, specially prepared 
and fully detailed, including Monographs on St. Paul's Choir Stalls, Hamp- 
ton Court, Oxford and Cambridge Colleges, London City Churches, etc. 
Including a series of Collotype Plates from pencil drawings, and illustrated 
descriptive text. Large folio, half-bound, 3 net (originally published at 
6 6s. net). 

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE FOR THE SMALL COLLECTOR 
Its History, Types and Surroundings from Mediaeval to Early Victorian 
Times. By J. P. BLAKE and A. E. REVEIRS-HOPKINS. Containing 150 
pages with about 130 Illustrations from Photographs, Old Prints and 
Pictures, Original Designs, Ornaments, etc. The book is planned as the 
first systematic and comprehensive guide to the simpler types of old 
furniture within the scope of the collector of average means. Med. 8vo. 
las. 6d. net. 

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE : THE OAK PERIOD, 15 50-1630 
Its Characteristics,, Features, and Detail from Tudor Times to the Regency. 
For the use of Collectors, Designers, Students, and Others. By J. T. 
GARSIDE Containing 30 Plates reproduced from the Author's specially pre- 
pared Drawings illustrating about 400 details of Table Legs, Bed-posts; 
Corbels, Friezes, Capitals, Panels, Inlay Motives, Metal Fittings, etc. 
Including also Drawings of type-pieces of the period and zo Photographic 
Illustrations With an Historical Introduction, etc. Cheaper reissue. 
8vo, cloth, gilt. js. 6d. net 

ANCIENT CHURCH CHESTS AND CHAIRS IN THE 
HOME COUNTIES ROUND GREATER LONDON 

With some Reference to their Surroundings. By FRED ROE, R.L, R.B.C. 
With a Foreword by C. REGINALD GRUNDY. A survey of the finest of these 
survivals of ancient craftsmanship by the leading authority on the subject. 
With 95 Illustrations, many full page, from Drawings by the Author and 
from Photographs, and a number of Line Illustrations in the text. Cheaper 
reissue. Demy 4to, cloth, gilt. 153. net. 

FRENCH FURNITURE AND DECORATION OF THE LOUIS 
XIV AND REGENCY STYLES 

A Pictorial review of their chief Types and Features in the Late XVIIth 
and early XVHEth Centuries. By CORRADO RICCI. Comprising 414 
Illustrations, mostly from Photographs of various types of Interiors, Gal- 
leries, Halls, with characteristic specimens of Chairs, Tables, Bureaux, 
Settees, Cabinets, Beds, Mirrors, Stools, etc. With brief Introductory Text, 
illustrated by reproductions of Designs, by Lepautre, Berain, Marot, Wat- 
teau and others. 410, cloth, gilt. 38s.net. 



8 PERIOD FURNITURE ^4ND DECOILATION 

' THE FOUR VOLUMES OF 
BATSFORD'S LIBRARY OF DECORATIVE ART 

form an attractive Scries of remarkable scope and completeness It reviews 
the Development of English Decoration and Furniture during the three 
Renaissance Centuries, XVI, XVII, and XVHI (1500-1820). Each volume 
has an extensive series of Plates, and is a complete guide to the work of its 
Penod. The volumes are remarkable for the beauty and number of their 
illustrations, the simplicity and clearness of their arrangement, and their 
moderate prices The complete series is published at prices amounting to 
10, but is supplied for the present at the special price of ^9 net 

"These handsome volumes with their extremely fine and copious illustrations provide a 
full survey of English Furniture and Decoration " The Times 

VOL. I. DECORATION AND FURNITURE IN ENGLAND 
DURING THE EARLY RENAISSANCE, 1500-1660 
An Account of their Development and Characteristic Forms during the 
Tudor, Elizabethan and Jacobean Periods, by M. JOURDAIN. Containing 
about 300 pages, and over 200 full-page Plates (with Coloured Frontispiece 
and some in photogravure), including over 400 Illustrations, from specially 
made Photographs and Measured Drawings, and from Engravings. Folio 
(si2e 14 x io in.), cloth, gilt z IDS. net. 

VOL. H. FURNITURE IN ENGLAND FROM 1660 to 1760 
By FRANCIS LENGYON A Survey of the Development of its Chief Types. 
Containing 300 pages with over 400 Illustrations, from special Photo- 
graphs, together -with 5 in colour. Second Edition, revised with many 
new Illustrations. Folio (14 in. x 10$ in.), cloth, gilt 2 ics net. 

VOL. in. DECORATION IN ENGLAND FROM 1640 to 1770 
By FRANCIS LENGYON A Review of its Development and Features Con- 
taining 300 pages -with over 350 Illustrations, of which 133 are full-page, 
from special Photographs, and 4 in colour. Second Edition, Revised 
and Enlarged. Folio (14 in x io& in.), cloth, gilt z los. net. 

VOL IV. DECORATION AND FURNITURE IN ENGLAND 
DURING THE LATER XVUlTH CENTURY, 1760-1820 
An Account of their Development and Characteristic Forms, by M JOUR- 
DAIN. Containing about 300 pages, with over 180 full-page Plates (a selec- 
tion in Collotype), including over 400 Illustrations, from specially made 
Photographs and Measured Drawings, and from Engravings. Folio 
(size 14 x io in.), cloth, gilt 2 los. net. 

HISTORIC INTERIORS IN COLOUR 

Illustrated in a Series of 80 full-page Plates, reproduced in facsimile from 
Water-colours by well-known artists of Rooms of the later XVIIth to the 
early XlXth Centuries, in Baroque, Rococo, Louis XVI, and Empire Styles, 
in various Castles and private Houses in Germany, Austria, and France 
Comprising Salons, Dining-rooms, Ante-rooms, Music Rooms, Cabinets, 
Bedrooms, Libraries, etc. With brief Text by A Feulner. 4to, cloth, gilt. 
4os. net. 

A. limited Edition of the first work on a fine, unknown Craft. 
DOMESTIC UTENSILS OF WOOD 

From the XVIth to the Mid-XDCth Century in England and on the 
Continent. By OWEN EVAN-THOMAS. Illustrated by 70 full-page Plates 
from specially arranged Photographs of 1000 subjects in the Author's 
personal collection. Including full Introductory, Historical and Descriptive 
Text. Large 4to, cloth, gilt. 2is. net. 



PERIOD FURNITURE AND DECORATION 9 

THE LEVERHULME ART MONOGRAPHS 

A Series of three sumptuous Volumes, folio, handsomely bound in art buckram, 
&lt. Price 15 ijj- the set (volumes not sold separately), Edztton strictly 
limited to 350 copies for sale, of which very few remain. 

I. ENGLISH PAINTING OF THE XVHIth AND XlXth 
CENTURIES 

With some Examples of the Spanish, French* and Dutch Schools, and a 
Collection of Original Drawings and of Sculpture. By R. R. TATLOCK, 
Editor of the 'Burlington Magazine. With an Introduction by ROGER FRY. 
Containing 200 pages of Text, including Introductory Notes, and detailed 
Accounts of 1000 Pictures, Drawings, etc. Illustrated by 101 Photographic 
full-page Plates and 1 2 in Photogravure. 

H. CHINESE PORCELAIN AND WEDGWOOD POTTERY 

With other works of Ceramic Art. By R. L HOBSON, B.A., British Museum. 
Containing 200 pages of Text, including Introductions and detailed des- 
criptions of over 2000 Pieces. With over 75 Photographic Plates, and 30 
Plates reproduced in colour. 

m. ENGLISH FURNITURE, TAPESTRY, AND NEEDLE- 
WORK OF THE XVIth-XIXth CENTURIES 
With some Examples of Foreign Styles. By PERCY MACQUOID, R.I. Con- 
taining 150 pages of Text, with Introductions and detailed descriptions of 
over 700 Objects. Illustrated by 104 Photographic Plates, and 9 Plates in 
full colour 

The three fine volumes which the late Viscount Leverhulme planned as a 
memorial to his wife constitute a record of his own permanent collections. 
Only 350 sets can be offered for subscription, and the very moderate figure 
of ji5 155. represents but a fraction of the immense expenses undertaken 
by Viscount Leverhulme. 



CHILDREN'S TOYS OF BYGONE DAYS 

A History of Playthings of all Peoples from Prehistoric Times to the XlXth 
Century. By KARL GR.OBER. English Version by PHILIP HEREFORD. 
A beautifully produced survey, with a frontispiece and 1 1 Plates in colour, 
and 306 photographic illustrations of Dolls, Dolls-houses, Mechanical 
Toys, Carts, Ships, Tin Soldiers, etc , etc., of every country and period 
from the earliest times With 66 pages of historical and descriptive text. 
4to, canvas, gilt, with decorative wrapper. New and cheaper edition, 
I2s 6d. net. 

"Its abundance of illustrations is wonderful. Many of them are in colour, and all are 
reproduced in a fashion Which does the publishers credit. The text is as interesting as tne 

pictures We can heartily recommend this 1 - - - - --.---- 

disappointed " The Daily Mail. 



wctures We can heartily recommend this book to the public No one who buys it will be 



An Attractive Account of a little-known XVUItb Century Craftsman, Dedicated 
by gracious permission to Her Majesty Queen Mary. 

JOHN OBJUSSET 

Huguenot, Carver, Medallist, Horn and Tortoise-shell Worker, and Snuff- 
box Maker With examples of his Works dated 1705-1728. By PHILIP A. S. 
PHILLIPS. Containing Text on the Records of the Obnsset family,, Writings 
on his Craftsmanship and Notes With 104 Illustrations on 40 Plates, 
finely reproduced in Collotype, of Horn and Tortoise-shell Tobacco-boxes, 
Medals, Plaques in different Materials, Medallions, etc. Edition limited to 
2jo numbered copies, of which 210 are for sale. 4to, canvas, gilt, gilt top. 
3 35. net. 



BOOK? FOR COLLECTORS 



BATSFORD'S COLLECTORS' LIBRARY 

A Series of Handbooks written by experts, providing information of prac- 
tical value to Connoisseurs, Collectors, Designers, and Students. Each 
volume forms an ideal introduction to its subject, and is fully illustrated 
by Reproductions in Colour and from Photographs. The following volumes 
are still available. 8vo, cloth, gilt, price 8s. 6d. net each, excepting the two 
marked. 4 ' 
*QLD ENGLISH FURNITURE. By F FENN and B. WYLLIE. With 

94 Illustrations. New Impression. los. 6d. net. 
OLD PEWTER. By MALCOLM BELL. With 106 Illustrations. 
SHEFFIELD PLATE. By BERTIE WYLLIE. With 121 Illustrations 
FRENCH FURNITURE. By ANDRE SAGLIO. With 59 Illustrations 
DUTCH POTTERY AND PORCELAIN. By W. P. KNOWLES With 54 

Illustrations. 

*PORCELADSF By WILLIAM BURTON With over 50 full-page Plates 
illustrating 87 fine examples of the Porcelain of Various Countries and 
Periods. New Impression. T.OS. 6d net. 

OLD PEWTER : ITS MAKERS AND MARKS 

A Guide for Collectors, Connoisseurs, and Antiquaries. By HOWARD 
HERSCHEL COTTERELL, First Vice-President of the Society of Pewter Col- 
lectors. Containing about 500 pages, with 64 Plates of 200 Specimens of 
British Pewter, dated and described, and a List of 5000 to 6000 Pewterers, 
with Illustrations of their Touches and Secondary Marks, Facsimile Repro- 
ductions of existing Touch-Plates, and Text Illustrations. Cheaper reissue. 
Demy 4to, cloth, gilt ^3 33. net* 

"Messrs Batsford's work as publishers is of their usual high standard, and Mr CottereU 
has enhanced his already great reputation as an authority, and is to be congratulated on 
this ideal standard Work which will perforce be the last word on the subject for many years 
to come " The Queen. 

AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF ENGLISH PLATE 

Ecclesiastical and Secular, illustrating the Development of Silver and 
Gold Work of the British Isles from the earliest known examples to the 
latest of the Georgian Period. By Sir CHARLES JAMES JACKSON, F.S.A. 
With a Coloured Frontispiece, 76 Plates finely executed in Photogravure,, 
and 1500 other Illustrations, chiefly from Photographs. Two volumes, 
small folio, bound in half-morocco. 10 los. net. 

A HISTORY OF ENGLISH WALLPAPER 

From the earliest Period to 1914. By A. V. SUGDEN and J. L. EDMONDSON, 
Comprising 270 pages on Wallpapers' ancestry Early Wallpapers Eigh- 
teentn Century Developments Famous Pioneers Chinese Papers and 
English Imitations Late Georgian Achievements The Coming of 
Machinery How Wallpaper "found itself" The Coming of William 
Morris Developments of Taste and Technique Mill Records. With 
70 Plates in colour and 190 Illustrations in half-tone. Large 4to, handsome 
art buckram, gilt, boxed. $ js net. 

OLD AND CURIOUS PLAYING CARDS 

Their History and Types from many Countries and Periods. By H. T. 
MORLET, B.Sc. (Arch.), F.R.Hist.S. With a Foreword by Sidney Lambert. 
Past-Master of the Company of Makers of Playing Cards. Containing 
Chapters on History, Asiatic, European and English Cards (including 
Caricature, Astrology, Heraldry, etc.), Musical Cards, Games, etc. With 
Over 330 Illustrations, many in colour. Crown 4to, canvas, lettered, cloth 
sides. 2IS net. or handsomelv hound tn leather an<i net 



FINH AND DECORATIVE ART 



A HISTORY OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR PAINTING 

By H. M. CUNDALL, F.S A. With a Foreword by Sir H. HUGHES-STANTON, 
P.R W.S. A New and Cheaper Edition, revised and enlarged, of this 
important standard work, with 64 full-page Illustrations in colour, and a 
full biographical list, arranged alphabetically, of the principal English 
Water-colounsts. Large Medium 8vo, cloth, 155. net 

"Apart from its value as a complete and authoritative work of reference in its special 
subject the book forms a delightful picture gallery of the best British work in water- 
colours The topographical and travel interest of the pictures reproduced has a wide 
range." Illustrated London News. 

THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE MONOGRAPHS 
Issued by the Publishers jointly with The Burlington Magazine 

MONOGRAPH NO. I CHINESE ART (Out of print) 

MONOGRAPH NO. H SPANISH ART 

An Introductory Review of Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Textiles, 
Ceramics, Woodwork, Metalwork, by ROYALL TYLER, Sir CHARUSS HOLMES 
and H. ISHERWOOD KAY, GEOFFREY WEBB, A. F. KENDRICK, B. RACKHAM 
and A. VAN DE Pur, BERNARD BEVAN, and P. DE ARTHSTANO, respectively. 
With a General Introduction by R. R. TATLOCK, Editor of The Burlington 
Magazine. Illustrated by 120 large scale reproductions of Paintings, 
Decorative Art, Buildings, etc., including 9 Plates in full colour, com- 
prising 280 pictures in all. With Maps, Bibliography, etc. Royal 4*0, cloth. 
Cheaper reissue, 255. net. 

MONOGRAPH NO. HI GEORGIAN ART 

A Survey of Art in England during the reign of George HI, 1760-1820, by 
leading authorities. The Sections comprise: Painting by J. B. MANSON; 
Architecture and Sculpture by GEOFFREY WEBB; Ceramics by BERNARJD 
RACKHAM, Woodwork by OLIVER BRACKETT, Textiles by A. F. KENDRICK; 
Minor Arts by LOUISE GORDON-STABLES. With an Introduction by 
ROGER FRY. The Illustrations include 6 Plates in colour and 64 in half- 
tone, comprising some 100 subjects, and forming a gallery of the fine and 
decorative arts of the Period. Cheaper reissue. Royal 4to cloth, ais. net. 

"This large volume gives an. authoritative survey of the arts enumerated, and the 
quality of the reproductions maintains the high standard associated with its source. The 
high reputation of the associated authors and the beauty of the illustrations combine to 
render the book an ideal fulfilment of its purpose " Illustrated London News 

THE DECORATIVE ARTS IN ENGLAND, 1660-1780 

By H. H. MULLINER, "with an Introduction by J. STARKTE GARDNER. A 
Series of no full-page Plates from Photographs illustrating 256 Specimens 
of Furniture, Lacquering, Marquetry, and Gesso, Chandeliers, Clocks; 
Stuart and Georgian Silver Sconces, Cups, Bowls, Tea and Coflee Sets 
Enamels, Locks, Battersea Enamel, Ormolu Vases, Tapestry, Needlework, 
Bookbindings With brief Historical Introductions and full descriptions. 
Folio, half-parchment, gilt. 3 ic-s. net. 

ENGLISH PLASTERWORK OF THE RENAISSANCE 

A Review of its Design during the Period from 1500 to 1800. By M. 
JOURDAIN. Comprising over 100 full-page Plates of Elizabethan, Stuart, 
Georgian, and Adam ceilings, friezes, overmentels, panels, ornament, 
detail, etc., from specially taken Photographs and from Measured Drawings 
and Sketches. With an Illustrated Historical Survey on Foreign Influences 
and the Evolution of Design, Work and Names of Craftsmen, etc. New 
and cheaper reissue. Demy 4to, cloth. i5S.net. 



HISTORIC ART 



ART IN THE LIFE OF MANKIND 

A Survey of its Achievements from the Earliest Times. By ALLEN W. 
SEABY. Planned in a series of concise volumes, each containing about 
80 pages of text ,with about 70 full-page and smaller Illustrations from the 
author's specially prepared Sketches and Drawings, and a series of 16 
Photographic Plates. Crown 8vo, cloth, 55. net per volume. 

I. A GENERAL VIEW OF ART ITS NATURE, MEANING, PRINCIPLES 
AND APPRECIATION n. ANCIENT TIMES: THE ART OF ANCIENT 
EGYPT, CHALD>E\, ASSYRIA, PERSIA, and other lands HI. GREEK ART 
& ITS INFLUENCE. IV. ROMAN & BYZANTINE ART & THEIR 
INFLUENCE. Other volumes on Art 

These concise little volumes are designed to serve as an Introduction to 
the Appreciation and Study of Art in general. They are simply and graphi- 
cally written and fully illustrated by many Drawings and Photographs. 

A SHORT HISTORY OF ART 

From Prehistoric times to the Nineteenth Century Translated from 
the French of Dr ANDRE BLUM. Edited and Revised by R R. TATLOCK. 
Illustrated by 128 full-page Photographic Plates, comprising about 250 
examples of the finest Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, and Decorative 
Art of Early, Classic, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, and Recent Times. 
Including also about 100 Illustrations in the text from Drawings, 
Engravings, and Plans. Medium 8vo, cloth, gilt. los 6d. net. 

HISTORY OF ART 

By JOSEPH PIJOAN, Professor at Pomona College, California In 3 volumes, 
Royal 8vo> bound in cloth, gilt. 365 net per volume (obtainable separately). 
VOL. I. PRIMITIVE, ANCIENT AND CLASSIC ART With 61 full- 
page Plates, including many in colour, and 876 Illustrations from Photo- 
graphs, Plans, Drawings, Restorations, etc. 

VOL. H BYZANTINE, ISLAMIC, ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC 
ART With 5 2 double- and full-page Plates, including many in colour, and 
856 Illustrations from Photographs, etc. 

VOL in. THE RENAISSANCE TO MODERN TIMES. With 34 full- 
page Plates, including many in colour and 776 Illustrations from Photo- 
graphs, etc. 

OLD MASTER DRAWINGS 

A Quarterly Magazine, edited by K. T PARKER, British Museum. With an 
Executive Committee of. CAMPBELL DODGSON, A. P. OPPE, M. HIND, and 
A. G B RUSSELL, and Consultative Foreign Authorities. Each number 
contains 16-20 Plates, and about 12. letterpress pages of articles and 
shorter notices dealing with Drawings from the earliest times to the i9th 
Century Demy 4to. Annual subscription, zis net, post free; Single 
Numbers, 55. 6d. net, post free. 

No periodical devoted exclusively to the study and criticism of drawings 
has hitherto existed, this publication is intended to meet the need. The 
names of the many scholars connected with it guarantee its authoritative 
character, and its volumes are a mine of reference to students of art. 

THE DRAWINGS OF ANTOINE WATTEAU, 1684-1721 
By Dr. K. T. PARKER, of the British Museum, an Editor of "Old Master 
Drawings.' 9 A full, original and critical Survey. Illustrated by 100 Collotype 
Reproductions of selected characteristic Drawings from private and pubnc 
collections, many unpublished, a Frontispiece in colour and 16 of tie 
Master's most important pictures. With full, critical and descriptive 
letterpress. 4to, canvas cloth, gilt. 2. 2s. net. 



DECOILATIVE slND FINE slRT 13 

GEORGIAN ENGLAND (1700-1830) 

A Review of its Social Life, Arts and Industries By Professor A. E. 
RICHARDSON, F.S A , F.R I.B.A , Author of "The English Inn," etc. 
Containing sections on the Social Scene, Navy, Army, Church, Sport, 
Architecture, Building Crafts, the Trades, Decorative Arts, Painting, 
Literature, Theatres, etc. Illustrated by 200 subjects from Photogiaphs and 
contemporary Prints, Engravings and Drawings, by Hogarth, Wheatley, 
Gainsborough, Reynolds, Rowlandson, and other artists. With 54 Line 
Text Illustrations, largely unpublished, and a Colour Frontispiece from an 
unpublished aquatint by ROBERT DIGHTON Med. 8vo, cloth, gilt. 125 6d.net. 

CONVERSATION PIECES IN ENGLISH PAINTING OF THE 
XVIHTH CENTURY 

An Illustrated Record and Review of the Special Loan Exhibition held by 
Sir Philip Sassoon in aid of Chanty, Spring, 1930 Edited by GEORGE C 
WILLIAMSON, LL.D Illustrating in a series of 6 double- and full-page 
Coloured Reproductions, and 80 plates in Collotype, 130 Paintings by 
Hogarth, Devis, Zoffany, Gainsborough, Reynolds, Wheatley, Stubbs, 
Lanscroon, Morland and other famous painters, of Group Family Gather- 
ings, Interior Scenes of Social Life, Theatrical, Outdoor and Sporting 
Subjects, etc. With Introductory Text and descriptive Notes. Demy 4to, 
cloth, gilt 3 35. net, 

Edition limited to 3 50 copies 9 of which but few remain for sale 
A^TOUR THRO' LONDON ABOUT THE YEAR 1725 
* Being Letter V and parts of Letter VI of "A Tour Thro* the Whole Island 
of Great Britain." Containing a description of the City of London, taking 
in the City of Westminster, Borough of Southwark and Parts of Middlesex. 
By DANIEL DEFOE. Reprinted from the Original Edition (1724-1726). 
Edited and Annotated by SIR MAYSON BEETON, K,B E., MA, and E BERES- 
FORD CHANCELLOR, M.A., F.S A. With Introduction, Prefatory Note, etc. 
Illustrated by z contemporary (end paper) and 4 specially drawn folding 
Maps and 56 full-page Plates, 16 hand-printed in Photogravure and the 
rest in Collotype, representing some 80 Buildings (many now vanished), 
Squares, Markets, Assemblies, the River, etc , from contemporary Prints, 
etc Small folio, antique panelled, calf, gilt, gilt top. jn us net; or in 
cloth, gilt, antique style, 8 8s. net. 

THE EARLY FLEMISH PAINTINGS IN THE RENDERS 
COLLECTION 

Exhibited at the Flemish Exhibition, Burlington House. With a full 
Introduction by G. HULIN DE Loo, and detailed Descriptions of the Paint- 
ings by E. MICHEL. Containing 6 Mounted Plates in full colour, and 
1 8 Plates in Photogravure of Paintings in the Collection of M. Renders of 
Bruges, including works by Rogier van der Weyden, Memling, Jean Pro- 
vost, Mabuse, the Masters of S. Veronica and of the Baroncelli Portraits, 
etc , etc. Large 4to, the few remaining copies offered in portfolio, i is, 
net; or bound in cloth, gilt, 1 55 net. 

"With the book in his hands he would be a dull reader indeed who cannot in a compara- 
tively short time familiarise himself with several distinct aspects of the history of Flemish 
painting " The Daily Telegraph 

LITTLE KNOWN TOWNS OF SPAIN 

A series of Water-colours and Drawings in facsimile colour and monochrome 
from the originals of VERNON HOWE BAILEY. Comprising 57 full-page 
Plates, many in colour, others in sepia, wash, lithography, etc., with text, 
including historical and descriptive short notes. Large 4*0, in decorative 
paper binding, 2. as. net. 



I4 OLD ENGLISH LIFE 

THE "BRITISH HERITAGE" SERIES 

THE FACE OF SCOTLAND 

A Pictorial Review of its Scenery. Hills, Glens, Lochs, Coast, Islands, 
Moors, etc , with Old Buildings, Castles, Churches, etc. Including a brief 
review of Topography, History and Characteristics. By HARRY BATSFORD, 
Hon A.R I B.A., and CHARLES FRY, with a foreword by Colonel JOHN 
BUCHAN, C.H ,M P. With 130 splendid artistic Illustrations, from specially 
selected Photographs, many hitherto unpublished, a Frontispiece in colour 
from a "Water-colour by W. RUSSELL FLINT, R.A., and numerous Line 
Drawings in the text by BRIAN COOK Demy 8vo, cloth, lettered, ys 6d. net. 
The most comprehensive book both in text and illustrations ever published 
on Scotland at this price. 

THE "ENGLISH LIFE" SERIES 

THE LANDSCAPE OF ENGLAND 

By CHARLES BRADLEY FORD. With a Foreword by Professor G M 
TREVELYAN, O.M., M.A., F S.A., etc. An attractive, popular, yet systematic 
and Informative survey under 5 main divisions: North Midlands, East, 
South-East, and West Country. With 135 fine Photographic Illustrations, 
mostly full-page and largely unpublished, including also a coloured Frontis- 
piece, 25 Pen Drawings and 6 Maps, by BRIAN COOK. Large 8vo, cloth, 
lettered. 128. 6d. net. 

"The varied beauties of English landscape are reflected with unusual charm in this 
treasurable volume It would seem impossible, indeed, to overpraise the quality of the 
artistry and skill which has gone to the making of this book The -volume as a whole has 
been well planned , it is a truly remarkable and appealing production " Liverpool 
Daily Post 

HOMES AND GARDENS OF ENGLAND 

By HARRY BATSFORD, Hon. A.R.I.B.A , and CHARLES FRY? With a Fore- 
word by LORD CONWAY of Allington. An attractive, popular, yet informa- 
tive survey from the Middle Ages to Victorian Times of the old Country 
Houses and their Gardens. Containing 175 Photographic Illustrations, a 
Frontispiece in colour by SYDNEY R. JONES, and numerous Line Drawings 
and Engravings in the text. Large 8vo, cloth, lettered, izs. 6d. net. 

"It is difftcult to avoid the appearance of adulation in giving any account of this 
superbly illustrated production, "which at 12s 6d gives every indication of philanthropy 
The accompanying text is a model of grace and brevity, and the work provides not only 
an excellent grounding, but its possession is certain to be a continued delight " The 
Bookfindtr Illustrated 

THE VILLAGES OF ENGLAND 

By A. K WICKHAM, M.A. With a Foreword by M. R. JAMES, O.M., 
Litt.D., F.S.A., Provost of Eton College. Arranged according to Local 
Types, with sections on. Place Names, the Middle Ages, etc. Containing 
over 100 splendid Photographic Illustrations of unspoilt and varied 
villages, a Frontispiece in colour by SYDNEY R. JONES, and numerous Line 
Drawings in the text by F L. GRIGGS, R.A., W. CURTIS GREEN, R.A., and 
others. Also a special Geological Map and decorative coloured wrapper by 
BRIAN COOK Second Edition, revised. L'ge 8vo, cloth, lettered IAS. 6d. net. 
"It is an extremely welcome book, neither pedantically historical nor sentimentally 
'arty/ but practical, simple and methodical, beautifully illustrated, and delightfully 
written The illustrations constitute a special feature and deserve the highest commenda- 
tion. They have been well selected, showing varied types throughout the country " 
Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News. 

THE ENGLISH COUNTRYSIDE 

By ERNEST C. PUI^ROOK. A Review of some of its Aspects, Features, 
and Attractions Wxtib 126 Illustrations from Photographs, and a Pencil 
Frontispiece by A. E NEWCOMBE. New and cheaper impression. Large 8vo, 
cloth, gilt, i os. 6d. net. 



OLD ENGLISH LIFE 



THE "ENGLISH LIFE" SERIES (continued) 

ENGLISH COUNTRY LIFE AND WORK 

An Account of some Past Aspects and Present Features. By ERNEST C. 
PULBROOK. Containing about 200 pages on Fanners, Old and New 
Field- Work Cottage Folk The Village Craftsman Religious Life, etc. 
With about 200 artistic Illustrations from special Photographs. New and 
cheaper reissue. Large 8vo, cloth, gilt. 125 6d. net. 

"We may congratulate the author on a very readable and, -well-illustrated, book He has 
given a fairly detailed description of a large number of occupations of the English country 
labourer and village dweller . Such industries as thatching and hurdle-making are 
described at some length, and there are good pages on country trading " The Field 

OLD ENGLISH HOUSEHOLD LIFE 

Some Account of Cottage Objects and Country Folk. By GERTRUDE 
JEKYLL. Consisting of 17 sections on the Fireplace, Candlelight, the 
Hearth, the Kitchen, Old Furniture, Home Industries, Cottage Buildings, 
Itinerants, Mills, Churchyards, etc. With 277 Illustrations from Photo- 
graphs and Old Prints and Drawings. New and cheaper reissue. Large 
thick 8vo, cloth, gilt. izs. 6d net. 

THE COTTAGES OF ENGLAND 

A Regional Survey from the XVIth to the XVIHth Century. By BASIL 
OLIVER, F.R.I B.A. The local types of every county are thoroughly repre- 
sented in about 196 Photographic Illustrations, including 16 Plates in 
Collotype, and the book forms the most thorough collection yet made of 
these fine survivals of old English life. With a Frontispiece in colour and 
a Foreword by the Rt. Hon. STANLEY BALDWIN, M.P. Large 8vo, cloth, 
gilt, with decorative coloured wrapper, zis. net. 

THE ENGLISH INN, PAST AND PRESENT 

By A. E RICHARDSON, and H. D. EBERLEIN Treating of the Inn in Mediae- 
val, Tudor, Georgian and Later Times, Interiors, Signs, Coach Travel, 
suggested Tours, etc. With about 200 Illustrations from Photographs, 
Prints, Engravings and Drawings by Rowlandson, Hogarth, Pollard, 
Alken and Shepherd, among other artists. Large 8vo, cloth, gilt. zis. net. 



THE XVHlTH CENTURY IN LONDON 

An Account of its Social Life and Arts. By E. BERESFORD CHANCELLOR. 
Containing 280 pages, with 192 Illustrations, printed in sepia, from Prints 
and Drawings by contemporary artists. With a Frontispiece in colour. 
Cheaper reissue. Crown 4to, cloth, gilt, i5s.net. 

-<4 Companion and Sequel to the above 

LIFE IN REGENCY AND EARLY VICTORIAN TIMES 

An Account of Social Life in the days of Brummel and D*Orsay. By E. 
BERESFORD CHANCELLOR. A Series of Chapters on the time of Brummel 
and D*Orsay > 1800-1843. With numerous Illustrations from Rare Prints 
and Original Drawings Cheaper reissue. Large 8 vo, cloth, gilt, izs 6d. net. 

TOURING LONDON 

By W. TEIGNMOUTH SHORE, Author of "Dinner Building," etc. With an. 
Introduction by the Rt. Hon. JOHN BURNS, PC. A Series of 4 Tours 
covering the chief parts of Toner London, written in a bright and pleasant 
style, but conveying much practical and historical information. Illustrated 
by 28 Photographs, with Drawings and Sketches in the text by well- 
known artists. Also a two-colour Map of the city, and Plans. Cheaper 
ceissue. Large crown 8vo, cloth. 2s. 6d. net. 



1 6 TRAVEL GARDENS 

TOURING ENGLAND BY ROAD AND BYWAY 

A Popular Illustrated Guide m a new form to the Beauties of Rural England . 
By SYDNEY R. JONES. Comprising 20 Typical Tours under Five Divisions, 
with General Introduction and complete Map, Introduction to each 
District and specially drawn simplified Route Map of each Tour, which is 
described in detail, with finger-post reference to features, and buildings of 
interest. Illustrated by 54 Drawings, including a number full page, 
specially drawn by the Author, and 50 Illustrations from Photographs by 
the Artist and others New and cheaper issue. Crown 8vo, cloth. 55, net. 

"This little book is a delightful guide to the English countryside, useful alike to walker, 
cyclist, and motorist " Queen 

LITTLE KNOWN ENGLAND: RAMBLES IN THE WELSH BORDER- 
LAND, THE ROLLING UPLANDS, THE CHALK HILLS, AND THE 
EASTERN COUNTIES 

By HAROLD DONALDSON EBERLEIN, Author of numerous works on 
Architecture, Decoration and Furniture With about 120 Illustrations, 
Bo from Photographs and Paintings, and 40 in the text from Drawings, 
Sketches, Engravings, etc Including a series of Maps. 8vo, cloth, lettered, 
izs. 6d. net. 

THE ART AND CRAFT OF GARDEN MAKING 

By THOMAS H. MAWSON, assisted by E. PRENTICE MAWSON. Fifth Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. Containing 440 pages, illustrated by 544 Plans > 
Sketches, and Photographs, and 5 colour Plates Including Site, Entrances, 
Gates > Avenues, Terraces, Beds, Pergolas, Treillage, Rock and Water, 
Greenhouses, etc , etc., and list of Shrubs and Trees. Small folio, buckram, 
gilt. 3 153 net. 

GARDENS IN THE MAKING 

By WALTER. H. GODFREY, A simple Guide to the Planning of a Garden. 
With upwards of 70 Illustrations of Plans, Views, and various Garden 
Accessories. Crown 8vo, cloth js 6d. net. 

SPANISH GARDENS 

By Mrs. C. M. VEULIERS-STUART A finely illustrated volume describing 
the beautiful and most famous gardens of Spain, by one of the foremost 
authorities on the subject. With 6 Plates in colour from the Author's 
original Water-colour Drawings, 80 pages of reproductions of gardens, 
statuary, cascades, garden features, etc., from Photographs, and numerous 
Illustrations in the text from old Engravings, Pen Drawings, etc. Small 
royal 8vo, cloth. 155 net 

"All who love beautiful illustrated books and all who are interested in. gardens will do 
well to buy this delightful volume The plates in colours from the author's water-colour 
drawings are exquisite The book is one of the most attractive we have seen ' ' Daily Mail 

HISTORIC COSTUME 

A Chronicle of Fashion in Western Europe, 1490-1790. By FRANCIS M. 
KELLY and RANDOLPH SCHWABE. Containing the chief characteristics of 
Dress in each century Illustrated by some hundreds of full-page and text 
Sketches from original sources by RANDOLPH SCHWABE of typical groups, 
figures and details. Including 7 Plates specially reproduced in colour, 
and 70 Photographic reproductions of Historic Pictures, Portraits, Scenes, 
etc. Second Edition revised and enlarged. Large Royal 8vo, cloth, gilt, 
253. net. 

"Intended primarily for the costumier, film producer, and artist, it is full of delight for 
the ordinary reader, who will find it an excellent help in the pleasant game of trying to 
construct a livelier vision of the past " The Queen. 



SOCIAL HISTORY COSTUME 



-d. fresh, able and informative Survey. Uniform with "Historic Costume" (p. 16). 
A SHORT HISTORY OF COSTUME AND ARMOUR, 
CHIEFLY IN ENGLAND, 1066-1800 

By F. M KELLY and RANDOLPH SCHWABE, Principal of the Slade School 
of Fine Art. Royal 8vo, cloth, gilt 255 net. Or in 2 volumes: 
I. THE MIDDLE AGES, 1066-1485. With Sections on Civilian Dress: 
"Shirts," "Shapes," Houppelandes and Burgundian Modes; Armour. 
Illustrated by 4 Plates in colours and gold, over 100 special Pen Drawings 
by RANDOLPH SCHWABE from original sources and 32 Photographic Plates 
of over 70 reproducti9ns. Royal 8vo, cloth, gilt 135. net 
H. THE RENAISSANCE, 1485-1800 With Sections on Puff and Slashes, 
The Spanish Trend, "Cavalier" and French Modes, the Heyday and 
Decline of Powder, Armour, etc Illustrated by 5 Plates (3 double) in 
colours and gold, over 100 special Pen Drawings by RANDOLPH SCHWABE 
from original sources, 36 Photographic Plates of 58 Reproductions Royal 
8 vo, cloth, gilt 133 net. 

"Within its limits, it is undoubtedly the best book of its kind Like their previous work, 
this present history is remarkable at once for its compression and its detail The number 
of the illustrations alone is impressix'e, even more so is their quality They make a picture- 
gallery of the past that will delight the ordinary reader almost as much as it will profit 
the student " Times Literary Supplement 

MEDIAEVAL COSTUME AND LIFE 

An Historic and Practical Review By DOROTHY HARTLEY. Containing 
22 full-page Plates from Photographs of living Male and Female Figures 
in specially made Costumes from Mediaeval MSS , 20 Plates in Line from 
the Author's Drawings of practical Construction, Detail, Sketches, etc., 
and 40 Plates of some 200 Reproductions from Contemporary Manuscripts 
of scenes of Mediaeval life and work. Including full historical and descrip- 
tive text, with directions for the practical cutting out and making of 
many costumes illustrated Large royal 8vo, cloth. 125 net. 

"Miss Hartley has treated the subject in a refreshingly original manner She gives a 
great deal of practical advice, and the whole pageant of costume is linked up with society 
in. such a way that we get a startlmgly definite view of daily life and work Altogether a 
fascinating handbook " Sunday Times 

THE "PEOPLE'S LIFE ^4ND WORK" SERIES 

LIFE AND WORK OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE THROUGH 
THE CENTURIES 

A Pictorial Record from Contemporary Sources By DOROTHY HARTLEY 
and MARGARET M. ELLIOT, B A. (Lond.). Each volume is devoted to a 
separate century and contains 32 pp. of Text and about 150 pictures on 48 
full-page Plates of Household Life, Crafts and Industries, Building, Farm- 
ing, Warfare, City and Country Scenes, Transport, Children, Church Life, 
Gardens, etc. With an Introduction on the characteristics of each period, 
full Descriptive Notes, Historical Chart, Analytical Index, Music, etc. 
Large (royal) 8vo, boards, lettered, or in portfolio with flaps 45 6d net 
per volume, or in cloth, 53. 6d net per volume. Volumes I and II 
(Early Middle Ages), in and IV (Later Middle Ages), and V and VI 
(Renaissance) are also bound together in cloth, ics. 6d. net each, and 
volumes I, II and HI (Middle Ages), and IV, V and VI (Renaissance) 
are also combined in cloth at 155 net each. A few remaining copies of 
volumes II and in (Later Middle Ages), and volumes IV and V (Early 
and Middle Renaissance), can also be obtained bound together in cloth at 
55. 3d net each 

The Series b?g now been completed as follows : 

I. SAXON TTMES TO 1300 IV. THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

II. THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY V THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

III. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY VI. THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

"A delightful collection of contemporary pictures largely taken from manuscripts. Of 
recent years we have had a bewildering output of picture-books, but we do not know of any 
on such a scale as this, cheap enough to find fheir way into the actual possession of 
children " The Manchester Guardian. 



18 SOCIAL HISTORY 

The Quenwsll Series of Books on Social Ltfe and History 

"In their volumes the authors have covered history from the Old Stone Age to the 
Industrial Revolution They have approached history from a new angle and in the 
process have revolutionised the teaching of it In their hands it has become a live, vivid, 
and picturesque subject, for they have breathed new life into old bones Their methods in 
narrative and illustration are now widely and generally recognised and appreciated " 
Western Mail 

A HISTORY OF EVERYDAY THINGS IN ENGLAND, 
1066-1799 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORIE and C. H. B. QUENNEIX. In Two 
Volumes Medium 8vo 8s. 6d. net each; also issued bound in one volume, 
1 6s. 6d. net. 

This account of the English People in their everyday life, of their occu- 
pations and amusements during seven centuries, may be read with enjoy- 
ment by all interested in the life of Great Britain. The book appeals 
strongly to Students, Designers, and those interested in Buildings, Decora- 
tion, and Costume. 

VOL. I. EVERYDAY THINGS IN ENGLAND, 1066-1499 

With 90 Illustrations, many full-page, and 3 Plates in colour. Second 
Edition, revised and enlarged, with additional illustrations. 

VOL. II EVERYDAY THINGS IN ENGLAND, 1500-1799 
By MARJORIE and C. H B. QUKNNELL. With 4 Coloured Plates and in 
other Illustrations from the Author's Drawings. Second Edition, revised 
and enlarged, with additional Illustrations. 

Issued in Parts for Schools and Class Teaching 
The work is now obtainable in Six Separate Parts, each covering a period 

of history of about a century, appropriate for a term's study. Each part 

has its own TITLE, CONTENTS, and FULL INDEX, the ILLUSTRATIONS are all 

given, and the coloured plates and comparative charts are also included. 

Bound in stiff paper covers (with the original special design), at 35. net each 

part. 

PART I. ENGLAND UNDER FOREIGN KINGS (1066-1199). Con- 
taining 2 Colour Plates, 5 full-page line Illustrations, and 1 5 in the text. 

PART IE. THE RISE OF PARLIAMENT (1200-1399). Containing 2. 
Colour Plates, 8 full-page Illustrations, and 22 in the text. 

PART HI. THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR (1400-1499) Containing 
i Colour Plate, n full-page line Illustrations, and 13 in the text 

PART IV. THE AGE OF ADVENTURE (1500-1599). Containing 2 
Colour Plates, 16 full-page line Illustrations, and 30 in the text. 

PART V. THE CROWN'S BID FOR POWER (1600-1699). Coffining 
i Colour Plate, 1 1 full-page line Illustrations, and 21 in the text. 

PART VI THE RISE OF MODERN ENGLAND (1700-1799). Con- 
taining i Colour Plate, n full-page line Illustrations, and 19 in the 
text. 

VOL. m. EVERYDAY THINGS IN ENGLAND, 1733-1851 
THE COMING OF THE INDUSTRIAL ERA. An Account of the 
Transition from Traditional to Modern Life and Civilization. Written and 
Illustrated by MARJORIE and C. H B. QUENNELL. Tracing the Transforma- 
tion of Agriculture, the coming of Steam Power, the application of Inven- 
tions, Trends in Social Life in Town and Country, Costume, Building, etc. 
Illustrated by 4 Coloured Plates, 120 full-page and smaller Drawings 
specially prepared by the Authors, and a series of Reproductions of contem- 
porary Engravings and Drawings. Medium 8vo, art canvas. 8s. 6d. net. 



SOCIAL HISTORY 19 

THE EVERYDAY LIFE SERIES 

u-4 Graphic and "Popular Survey of the Efforts and 'Progress of the "Human Race^ 
now completed m 4 volumes Crown %vo f cloth* 5 J. net each. 

EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE OLD STONE AGE 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORTE and C H. B. QUENKELL. Containing 
128 pages, including 70 Illustrations, and a coloured Frontispiece, from tiie 
Authors' Drawings, with a Chronological Chart. Second Edition, revised. 

"A small book containing much substance ... A vivid, simple style and sprightly 
humour which last is earned even into their clever black-and-white illustrations should 
give them many appreciative readers A most attractive little book " The Morning Post. 

EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE NEW STONE, BRONZE 
AND EARLY IRON AGES 

Written and Illustrated by MARJOREB and C. H. B. QUENNELL. Containing 
144 pages, with 90 original Illustrations from the Authors" Drawings, of 
Household Life, Agriculture, Pottery, Weapons, Ornaments, etc., including 
z Plates in colour, a marked Map, and a Chronological Chart. Second 
Edition, revised. 

The above two works may now be obtained bound in one bandy volume as described 
below: 

EVERYDAY LIFE IN PREHISTORIC TIMES 

Containing zqz pages, 3 Plates in colour and a in monochrome, with 160 
Illustrations from the Authors* Pen-and-ink Drawings, two Chronological 
Charts and a Comparative Map. The Old Stone Age Section has an Account 
of the Rhodesian Skull and Nebraskan Tooth, with 2 additional Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, lettered, xos. net. 

EVERYDAY LIFE IN ROMAN BRITAIN 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORES and C H. B QUENNEIX. Containing 
128 pages, with over 100 original Illustrations from the Authors* Pen 
Drawings, of Cities and Camps, Villas, Ships, Chariots, Monuments, Cos- 
tume, Military Life, Household Objects, Pottery, etc. Including 3 Colour 
Plates, Chart, and Map of Roads. 

EVERYDAY LIFE IN SAXON, VIKING, AND NORMAN 
TIMES 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORJCE and C. H. B. QUENNELL. Con- 
taining 128 pages, with over 100 original Illustrations from the Authors* 
Pen and Pencil Drawings of Ships, Cooking, Metalwork, Caskets, Crosses, 
Buildings, Pottery, and Illuminated MSS , including 2 coloured Plates, 
Historical Chart, etc. Crown 8vo, cloth, 55. net. 

"It is a period which gives scope for interesting writing and delightful illustrations The 
authors have, as before, profited to the full by their opportunities. Altogether this is an 
agreeable as well as a valuable book, and one can say of the authors what Asser said of 
Alfred They are 'affable and pleasant to all, and curiously eager to investigate things 
unknown * " The Times 



ENGLAND IN TUDOR TIMES 

An Account of its Social Life and Industries By L. F. SALZMAN, M.A., 
F.S A , Author of "English Industries of the Middle Ages," etc. A remark- 
able survey of a great period in England's Social history. Containing 
chapters on The Spirit of the Tudor Age Life in the Country Life in 
the Town Life in the Home The Church Adventure on Land and 
Sea. With 138 pages of text, 64 full-page illustrations and plentiful Illus- 
trations in the text from Drawings, Engravings, etc. Cheaper reissue. 
Demy 8vo , cloth. 55. net. 



SOCIAL HISTORY 



A. New Fascinating Series of Classical Social L.tfe. Uniform with the Author's 
"Everyday Things in "England '.** 

EVERYDAY THINGS IN ANCIENT GREECE (HOMERIC- 
ARCHAIC CL AS SICAL) 

An * e Ommbus" Volume of the three following works Written and 
Illustrated by MARJORIE and C H. B. QUENNELL. A fall review of Social 
Life and the Arts. Containing 3 coloured Plates, some 238 full-page and 
smaller Illustrations from Drawings in Pen-and-ink, Pencil, and Wash and 
20 from Photographs Large thick 8vo 2is net 

VOL.1. EVERYDAY THINGS IN HOMERIC GREECE 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORIE and C H. B. QUENNELL, Authors of 
"The Everyday Life Series," etc. Presenting a vivid picture based on the 
Social Life in the Iliad and Odyssey, etc. Illustrated by about 70 full-page 
and smaller Drawings by the Authors, after early Vase Paintings and their 
own restorations With Colour Frontispiece, Photographic Illustrations, 
Map, etc Large 8vo, decoratively bound 75. 6d. net 

VOL, II. EVERYDAY THINGS IN ARCHAIC GREECE 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORIE and C. H B QUENNELL A Graphic 
Account of Social Life from the close of the Trojan War to the Persian 
Struggle, treating of Herodotus and his History, the Temple and the House, 
Life inside the House, and Life outside the House Illustrated by 85 full- 
page and smaller Drawings by the Authors, specially prepared for the book* 
With a coloured Frontispiece, a number of Photographic Illustrations, 
Map, etc Large 8vo, cloth, lettered, 75 6d net 

"The Quennell books are likely to outlast some of the most imposing institutions of the 
post-war world A book which is written with great scholarship and surprising lucidity 
To speak in superlatives of this series is only justice, for seldomis there found such a unity 
between publisher, author, and illustrator as the Batsford books display " 6? K 's Weekly 

VOL. HI. EVERYDAY THINGS IN CLASSICAL GREECE 

Written and Illustrated by MARJORIE and C H B QUENNELL. A vivid 
picture of Social Life in the Golden Age of Pericles, Socrates, Phidias, 
Plato, and the building of the Parthenon, 480-404 B c. With Sections on 
Architecture, The Town and its Planning, Town Houses and Everuday 
Life, Sea Fights and Land Battles, etc. Illustrated by 83 full-page and 
smaller Pen-and-ink or Wash Drawings specially made by the Authors 
With coloured Frontispiece, Series of Photographic Illustrations, Historical 
Chart, Map, etc. Large 8vo, cloth, lettered. 8s net. 

If ordered at one time the three volumes of this series are priced at 
22s net. 

A MANUAL OF HISTORIC ORNAMENT 

Being an Account of the Development of Architecture and the Historic 
Arts, for the use of Students and Craftsmen. By RICHARD GLAZIER, 
A.R.LB.A. Fifth Edition, revised and enlarged. Containing 700 Illustra- 
tions, chiefly from the Author's Pen Drawings, including many new to this 
Edition from various sources, and a special series of Photographic Plates of 
Ornament of the Orient and the Renaissance. Large 8vp, cloth. 1 2s 6d net. 
"The result of revision is admirable in every respect the book is immensely improved, 
and its scope considerably broadened, though it is still compact and easy of reference 
It is now the ideal manual for the student or craftsman, and those who are wise enough to 
purchase it will possess not only an invaluable work of reference, but a source of inspiration 
as well " The Decorator 

ROUND THE WORLD IN FOLK TALES 

A Regional Treatment By RACHEL M. FLEMING. 16 Tales from Iceland, 
Mexico, Africa, Australia, etc,, told in a fresh, easy style With 17 Illus- 
trations from Prints, Drawings, and Photographs 8vo, boards, is. net. 
Cloth, 3s. net. 



ORNAMENT ^4ND DESIGN 



"ESSENTIALS OF LIFE" SERIES 

By Lieut -Colonel F. S BRERETON, C B E., Author of numerous popular 
works Bright, informative reviews of the Indispensable Things of Human 
Life. Each with 80 pages of text, and about 100 Illustrations in Line and 
Half-tone from Photographs, Drawings, Old Prints, etc*, of Old and 
Modern Developments. Large crown 8vo, cloth, lettered 45 net each 
I CLOTHING- An Account of its Types and Manufacture. Contents 
Materials Spinning Weaving The Sewing Machine A Modern 
Factory Furs and Rubber Leather and Tanning Boots Hats Glove- 
making Dyeing and Cleaning Pins Needles Buttons, etc. 
II. TRAVEL- An Account of its Methods in Past and Present. Contents: 
Early Roads and Trading Routes Coaching The Steam Engine 
Steamships and Railways The Bicycle The Petrol Engine Air Travel 
Postman Wire or Wireless, With Illustrations of Coaches, Engines, 
Balloons, Aircraft, Ships, Steamers, etc. 

"Each volume is illustrated with a. -wealth of pictures from old and modem sources The 
text is written in an easy, discursive style that should popularise the books, and is yet 
packed with sound knowledge and fact " U 'Atletntique 

A HANDBOOK OF ORNAMENT 

With 3000 Illustrations of the Elements and the Application of Decoration 
to Objects, e.g , Vases, Frets, Diapers, Consoles, Frames, Jewellery, 
Heraldry, etc., grouped on over 300 Plates, reproduced from the Author's 
specially prepared Drawings With descriptive text to each subject. 
By Professor F. SALES MEYER. Large 8vo, cloth, lettered i6s. net. 
"Ix is A LIBRARY, A MUSEUM, AN ENCYCLOPEDIA, AND AN ART SCHOOL IN ONE To 

RIVAL IT AS A BOOK OF REFERENCE ONE MUST FILL A BOOKCASE The Quality Of the 

drawings is unusually high, and the choice of examples is singularly good . The text 
is well digested, and not merely descriptive or didactic, but an admirable mixture of 
example and precept So good a book needs no praise." The Studio. 

THE STYLES OF ORNAMENT 

From Prehistoric Times to the Middle of the XlXth Century A Series of 
3500 Examples Arranged in Historical Order, with descriptive text. 
By ALEXANDER SPELTZ. Revised and Edited by R PHEN^ SPIERS, F.S A , 
F.R I.B.A. Containing 560 pages, with 400 full-page Plates exhibiting 
upwards of 3500 separate Illustrations Large 8vo, cloth, gilt, sos net. 

MR WALTER CRANE, in a lengthy review in the Manchester Guardian, wrote " . To 
pack into a single volume of some 626 pages and 400 illustrations a really intelligible 
account of the styles of ornament prevailing in the world from prehistoric times to the 
middle of the nineteenth century is A REMARKABLE FE^T. . The illustrations are for 
the most part well chosen and characteristic, and are drawn with decision and facility " 

PATTERN DESIGN 

For Students, treating in a practical way the Anatomy, Planning, and Evo- 
lution of Repeated Ornament. By LEWIS F. DAY. Containing about 300 
pages, and 300 practical Illustrations from specially prepared Drawings 
and Photographs of the Principles of Repeat Design, the "Drop," the 
"Spot" Geometrical Ornament, etc. New edition, revised and enlarged 
by AMOR FENN, with many fresh Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth, gilt, 
i os 6d net 

"Every line and every illustration in this book should be studied carefully and con- 
tinually by every one having any aspiration toward designing." The Decorator 

ABSTRACT DESIGN 

A Practical Manual on the Making of Pattern. By AMOR FENN, late Head 
of the Art Section, Goldsmith's College, New Cross. A series of careful, 
informative sections on Conditions, Elements, etc. Illustrated by about 
1 80 full-page Designs from the Author's specially-prepared Drawings. 
8vo, cloth, lettered. 125. 6d. net. 



ORNAMENT AND DESIGN 



NATURE AND ORNAMENT 

By LEWIS F. DAY NATURE THE RAW MATERIAL OF DESIGN, treating 
chiefly of the decorative possibilities of Plant Form, its growth, features, 
and detail With 350 Illustrations, chiefly grouped comparatively under 
Flowers, Seed Vessels, Fruits, Berries, etc., specially drawn by Miss J. 
FOORD New Edition, revised, with a Chapter by MARY HOGARTH Demy 
8vo, cloth, lettered, ys. 6d. net. 

FLORAL FORMS IN HISTORIC DESIGN 

Drawn by LINDSAY P BUTTERFIELD, Designer, with Introduction and 
Notes by W. G. PAULSON TOWNSEND Containing 30 Plates in Collotype 
and Line, showing about 100 Decorative Adaptations of the Rose, Carna- 
tion, Fruit Blossom, etc , from Eastern and European stuflfe, and from old 
Herbals. Large folio, in portfolio i5S.net. 

MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN ENGLAND 

A Series of Illustrations of its Development and Characteristics, with 
Introductory Text by W. G. PAULSON TOWNSEND. Cheaper reissue. Large 
4to, cloth, gilt. 155 net. 

TEXTILES, PRINTED FABRICS, WALL PAPERS, LACE AND 
EMBROIDERY, TAPESTRY, STENCILLING, BATIK, etc. Illus- 
trating on So Plates 178 examples, including 51 subjects beautifully repro- 
duced in full colour 

THB PRACTICAL DRAWING SEEJES 

DRAWING FOR ART STUDENTS AND ILLUSTRATORS 

By AiiEN W. SEABY. Containing 220 pages, with 113 Illustrations printed 
in Sepia, mostly full-page Plates, from Drawings by Old and Modern 
Artists. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Medium 8vo, clotty 
paper sides. los. 6d. net. 

COMPOSITION 

An Analysis of the Principles of Pictorial Design. By CYRIL C. PEARCE, 
R.B.A with chapters on Tone, Distribution, Gradation, Scale, Perspec- 
tive, Rhythm, Harmony and Balance of Colour, Discords. Illustrated by 
130 comparative and analytical Drawings, Sketches, and Diagrams, 6 
Plates in colour, and 28 full-page Illustrations from Paintings by great 
Masters. Medium 8vo, cloth, gilt, paper sides. 125. 6d. net. 

PEN DRAWING 

A Practical Manual on Materials, Technique, Style, Texture, etc. By G. 
M. EIXWOOD Containing sections on History Technique Materials 
Figures, Faces and Hands Style and Methods Landscape and Archi- 
tecture Modern Work Magazine Illustration Humorous Drawing 
Advertisements Fashion with numerous practical Diagrams by the 
Author, and 100 pages of Illustrations by the chief Pen Draughtsmen of 
present and recent times. Medium 8vo, cloth, gilt, paper sides 125. net. 

THE ART OF DRAWING IN LEAD PENCIL 

By JASPER. SALWEY, A.R I.B A. A Practical Manual dealing with Materials, 
Technique, Notes and Sketching, Building up, Form and Style, Process 
Reproduction, etc. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Containing 
232 pages with 122 finely printed reproductions of selectedPencil Drawings 
ot Land and Seascapes. Figure-Studies, Book-Illustrations, etc. Medium 
8vo, cloth, gilt, paper sides xzs. 6d. net. 



MANUALS ON DRAINING 23 

THE PRACTICAL DRAWING SERIES (continued) 
THE ART AND PRACTICE OF SKETCHING 

A Comprehensive Treatise on the Practice of Sketching by every method. 
By JASPER SALWEY, A.R I.B.A. The Author deals successively with varous 
media Pen, Pencil, Water-colour, Oil, Wash, Crayon, Chalk, etc , and 
gives a complete account of the Technique of each. Illustrated by 64 
Plates of half-tone illustration and 6 Plates in colour, with various Line 
Illustrations in the text from the work of great Masters. Medium 8vo, 
cloth, paper sides. 125. 6d. net. 

SKETCHING IN LEAD PENCIL 

By JASPER SALWEY, A.R.I.B.A. An Introduction to the same author's "Art 
of Drawing in Lead Pencil," but dealing entirely with sketching as differen- 
tiated from the making of finished Drawings, A practical manual for the 
Architect, Student and Artist. Containing in pages and 56 Illustrations, 
by well-known artists in the medium, and by the author. Medium Svo, 
cloth, gilt, paper sides. 75, 6d. net. 

ANIMAL ANATOMY AND DRAWING 

By EDWIN NOBLE. Illustrated by a series of Plates in facsimile of the 
Author's Drawings of HORSES, CATTLE, DOGS, BIRDS, AND WELD ANIMAI s, 
representing also Features, Details, etc. Including also numerous full-page 
and smaller Line Drawings of Anatomy, Muscles, Bones, etc. Medium Svo, 
cloth, gilt, paper sides. los. 6d. net. 

SKETCHING FROM NATURE 

A Practical Treatise on the Principles of Pictorial Composition. By F. J. 
GLASS. CONTENTS: Choice of Subject and Planning of Sketch Tones 
Exercises in Composition Examples fiom the Old Masters With 6 
Plates in colour and numerous composition from the Author's Drawings, 
and a series of Plates by Peter de Wint, Crome, Constable, Har- 
pignies, Bonmgton, etc Medium Svo, cloth, xos. 6d. net 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

By LOUIE E. CHADWICK. Illustrated by numerous examples of Historic 
Fashion Plates, Explanatory Sketches by the Author, Figure Studies, and 
a senes of about 80 full-page and double Plates of Contemporary Fashion 
Drawings by well-known artists. Cheaper reissue. Large Svo, cloth, lettered. 
75. 6d. net. 

COLOUR : A MANUAL OF ITS STUDY AND PRACTICE 

By H. BARRETT CARPENTER, late Headmaster of the School of Art, Roch- 
dale. A Series of 16 concise but very practical chapters, based on the 
Author's experiments, on Harmony Contrast Discord Keynotes 
Intermingling Effect of Lighting Dirty Colour Black-and-White, etc. 
Illustrated by 24 Plates (some double size), printed in colout; giving 40 
-Examples of Colour Combinations, Grading, Toning, etc., including some 
new examples of application in Historic Design. New and Revised 
Impression. Svo, cloth, gilt. gs. net. 

"This book has been revised and enlarged, making it a treasure for all who wish to 
understand the value of colour Like most of the books published by this house, the type 
is bold and clear and the many coloured illustrations are really beautiful I feel this book 
will bring sunshine into the darkest day, and would recommend it to all " Arts And Crafts 
Journal 

A COLOUR CHART 

Issued in connection with the above book. Consisting of a circle 17 inches 
in diameter, printed in Graded Colour, showing 14 shades, Combinations 
and Contrasts. With explanatory letterpress. FoBo, stout paper, zs. 6d. net. 



DRAWING AND ANATOMY 



EVERYDAY ART AT SCHOOL AND HOME 

By D. D. SAWER A Practical Course based on the new Board of Educa- 
tion "Suggestions to Teachers," and adaptable to Dalton Methods, con 
taining graduated lessons on Brushwork, Design, Flower-fainting, etc., 
with sections on Architectural Drawing, Lettering, Stained Glass, Leather- 
work, and other Crafts. With 64 Plates in half-tone, from the Author's 
Drawings, numerous full-page and smaller Line Illustrations, and 8 Plates 
in colour, many Verse Extracts, etc. Medium 8vo, cloth. ias. 6d. net. 

PERSPECTIVE IN DRAWING 

A simple Introductory Account By Miss D D. SAWER, late Art Lecturer 
at the Diocesan College, Brighton, Author of "Everyday Art at School and 
Home " With an Introduction by Professor ALLEN W SEABY, Headmaster, 
School of Art, University of Reading With Sections on Basic Principles, 
the Cube, Cylinder, Shadows, Reflections, Aerial Perspective, Colour, and 
Drawing. Illustrated by over 100 Diagrams and Sketches, a Frontispiece 
in colour, specially drawn by the Author, and reproductions from Photo- 
graphs. Crown 8vo, cloth, 53 net. 

SKETCHING AND PAINTING FOR YOUNG AND OLD 

An Elementary Practical Manual, by D. D. SAWER, late Art Mistress, 
Brighton Diocesan Training College, Author of "Everyday Art Perspective," 
etc. With chapters on Ungathered Wealth, a Day Out, Materials, Practice, 
the First Sketch Out of Doors, Composition, Mounting and Framing. 
Illustrated by coloured Frontispiece, 8 Plates in Line and half-tone, and 31 
text Illustrations from the Author's specially prepared Sketches, Diagrams, 
etc Crown 8vo, stiff covers, is. 6d. net; or cloth, lettered, 25 6d. net. 

THE ART OF THE BODY 

Rhythmic Exercises for Health and Beauty By MARGUERITE AGNIEL, 
Dancer and Physical Instructress. A series of simple, easy and enjoyable 
exercises, illustrated by numerous Photographic Plates, specially posed 
by the Author. With 100 subjects on 64 Plates, including many reproduc- 
tions of dance poses and figure studies, draped and nude. CONTENTS: 
Function of the Spine How to Walk Well Figure Reducing Exercises 
for the Digestive Organs, Back and Neck Legs and Ankles The Care 
of the Hands and Feet Skin, Byes and TeethConstipation Women's 
Disorders, etc. Cheaper reissue. Large 8vo, cloth, gilt. 73. 6d. net. 

"For some years past I have been much interested in the ideas which Miss 
Marguerite Agmel not only advocates but so skilfully and delightfully embodies By 
her own personal experiences she has been especially fitted to demonstrate the harmo- 
nious union of the aesthetic and hygienic aspects of physical exercise. There must be 
many to whom her work will prove fascinating and valuable " HAVELOCK ELLIS 

THE HUMAN FORM AND ITS USE IN ART 

A Series of 118 Photographic Studies on 73 Plates from specially selected 
Female and Child Models, by F. R. YERBURY, including a Series of Male 
Studies by F. H. CROSSLEY, F.S.A. With an Introduction by G. M ELL- 
WOOD. Illustrated by 17 Photographic Plates and numerous Text Figures. 
With descriptive Notes on the Poses. Large 8vo, cloth. i8s. net. 

LIVING SCULPTURE 

A Record of Expression in the Human Figure by BERTRAM PARK and 
YVONNE GREGORY. With an historical and descriptive Introduction by G. 
MONTAGUE ELLWOOD. Comprising a Series of 47 full-page Studies of 
Selected Male and Female Figures with descriptive Notes The Intro- 
duction is illustrated by 9 plates, giving 16 examples of the Human Form 
in Prehistoric, Greek, Renaissance and newest Art. Cheaper reissue. 
Small 4to, cloth, gilt. izs. 6d. net. 



ANATOMY LETTERING 25 

LAUGHS AND SMILES and How to Draw Them. By A A. BRAUKT. 
Containing 45 Plates, printed in tints of numerous constructional sketches, 
building up in successive stages humorous likenesses of well-known person- 
ages, and also figures from old Masters. Comprising in all about 300 Sketches 
by the Author, with concise instructive Text, including numerous anatomical 
Diagrams. Oblong 4to, decorative boards, cloth back. 35. 6d. net. 

"A book which young art students, or anyone with a practical taste for art, would 
appreciate This attractive manual on humorous portrait-drawing should have a. wide 
appeal " Overseas Dailv Mail 

FIGURES, FACES AND FOLDS 

A Reference Book on Costume and the Female Countenance and Form. 
For Fashion Artists, Dress Designers, and Art Students By ADOLPHE 
ARMAND BRAUN. Containing 112 comparative Plates, giving over 300 Illus- 
trations of Costume and Drapery, and of typical Women's Faces, from 
antique statues and paintings. Including a special series of nude and draped 
studies from selected models speciallv posed for fashion work. With 
practical text, Dress diagrams, Figure details, Anatomy analysis, etc. Cheaper 
reissue. Demy 4to, stiff paper covers, 8s 6d. net, cloth, gilt, IDS. net 

THE CHILD IN ART AND NATURE 

By A. A. BRAUN Containing chapters on Anatomy, Development, and 
Expression, and over 300 Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
of child poses, expressions, the Child Figure in Art. Second Edition, 
revised and enlarged. Cheaper reissue. 4to, in stiff covers, TOS net; or 
cloth, gilt, I2S 6d. net. 

ALPHABETS, OLD AND NEW 

With 224 complete Alphabets, 30 series of Numerals, many Ancient 
Dates, etc Selected and Arranged by LEWIS F. DAY. With a short account 
of the Development of the Alphabet. Crown 8vo, cloth ys. 6d. net. 

"A book which has, perhaps, proved more helpful than any ever before issued on the 
subject of alphabets " The Decorator 

A. valuable and attractive little ManuaL 

PEN PRACTICE 

By WALTER HIGGINS. Chapters on Tools, Broad-pen Practice, Spacing, 
Italics, Uncials and Half-uncials, Setting out, A Cursive Hand, etc. Witib 
27 Plates specially drawn by the Author, giving some hundreds of Letters, 
Ornaments and Exercises, and 6 from selected Historical Examples. Crown 
8vo, stiff paper covers, is. 6d. net; or cloth, lettered, *s. 6d. net. 

THE ROMAN ALPHABET AND ITS DERIVATIVES 

A large-sifced Reproduction of the Alphabet of the Trajan Column. By 
ALLEN W. SEABY. A Series of large Plates, printed from the wood blocks, 
and including typical examples of Renaissance, Gothic, and Modem 
Alphabets and Types. With Introduction and descriptive Notes. Medium 
4to, half-bound, lettered, or in portfolio. 6s. 6d net. 

RAFFLES DAVISON, Hon. A.R.I.B.A., Draughtsman, Writer, 
and Editor 

A Record of his Life and Work, 1870-1927, including a Selection of his 
Drawings and Sketches. Edited by MAURICE E. WEBB and HERBERT 
WIGGLBSWORTH. A memorial volume issued to commemorate the life 
and work of this fine draughtsman, including about 117 of his Architec- 
tural, Decorative and Landscape Sketches. With appreciations by Sir 
ASTON WEBB, PP.R.A., Sir REGINALD BLOMFIBLD, R.A., and others. 4to r 
half-bound. 2is. net. 



26 

DRAWING, DESIGN AND CRAFTWORK 

For Teachers, Students, and Designers. By FREDK, J. GLASS Containing 
224 pages, with over 1750 Illustrations on 214 Plates, from Drawings by 
the Author. Third Edition, revised and enlarged with many new Plates. 
Demy 8vo, cloth. 123. net. 

MODELLING 

A Practical Treatise for the Use of Students, etc. By F. J GLASS. Contain- 
ing Chapters on Modelling for Bronze, Wood, Stone, Terra-Cotta, etc; 
Modelling a Bust from Life, Figure Modelling, Relief Work, Composition; 
Casting; Gelatine Moulding, Proportionate Enlargement, etc. With an 
additional section on the History of Sculpture and Modelled Ornament. 
Illustrated by about 30 Plates of comparative stages and processes of 
Afodelling, with about 35 Plates of the greatest Sculpture of all Periods, 
together with many Line Illustrations in the text. Royal 8vo, cloth, gilt. 
1 8s. net. 

ETCHING CRAFT 

An Illustrated Guide for Students and Collectors. By W. P ROBINS, R.E. 
With a Foreword by MARTIN HARDIE, Victoria and Albert Museum. Con- 
taining 250 pages on History, Technique, the work of the great Etchers, 
Dry-point, Aquatint, etc. lllustratdjd by 100 Plates of Etchings by Durer, 
Rembrandt, Hollar, Whistler, Branglwyn, Clausen, Augustus John, Meryon, 
Forain, Zorn, and many other famous Etchers Large 8vo, half-bound, gilt. 
155. net (formerly 21 s net). 

PRACTICAL WOODCARVING 

By ELEANOR ROWE Third Edition, revised and enlarged, in Two Parts* 
I. ELEMENTARY WOODCARVING, embodying "Hints on Woodcarvkig." 
With numerous Illustrations, many full-page, from Drawings and Photo- 
graphs of carving operations, examples and details. II. ADVANCED WOOD- 
CARVING. With numerous Illustrations, many full-page, from Drawings and 
Photographs of historic and modern carvings. Demy 8vo, limp cloth, 
lettered. 55. net each; or two parts in one volume, cloth, gilt, IDS. net 

ONE HUNDRED AND ONE THINGS FOR A BOY TO 
MAKE 

By A. C. HORTH. Widi Notes on Workshop Practice and Processes, Tools, 
Joints, and full reliable directions for making Working Models. Illus- 
trated by numerous full-page and smaller practical Diagrams and Sketches 
specially prepared. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, 53 net. 

DINNER BUILDING 

A Book of entertaining and practical instruction in the Noble Arts of 
Cooking and Eating Written by W. TEIGNMOUTH SHORE. With an 
Introduction by GILBERT FRANKAU. A series of 42 bright, stimulating but 
practical Talks on such subjects as The Perfect Dinner, Sandwichery, 
Remnant Days, Cabbages and Things, incorporating hundreds of fresh 
recipes of all kinds. Cheaper reissue. F'cap 8vo, cloth, lettered, as. net. 

SAMPLERS AND STITCHES 

A Handbook of the Embroiderer's Ait. By MRS. ARCHIBALD CHRISTIE. 
Containing 34 full-page Reproductions from Photographs, a Frontispiece 
in colour, and 39 Text Drawings. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. 
Crown 4to, boards, canvas back. 258. net. 



NEEDLEWORK, EMBROIDERY, TEXTILES 27 

ART IN NEEDLEWORK 

A BOOK ABOUT EMBROIDERY. By LEWIS F. DAY and MARY BUCKLE. Fourth 
Edition, revised by MARY HOGARTH. Including a specially -worked Series 
of Stitch-Samplers, numerous supplementary Diagrams and many Plates 
of Historic Embroidery Chinese, Mediaeval, Italian, French, and Modem 
English. With additional Examples of Modem Work by DUNCAN GRANT, 
MRS. NEWALL, MRS. STOLL, D HAGER, and others. Containing 280 pages, 
80 full-page Plates, reproduced from Photographs, and 50 Illustrations in 
the text Crown 8vo, cloth ys. 6d. net. 

SIMPLE STITCH PATTERNS FOR EMBROIDERY 

By ANNE BRANDON- JONES. With coloured Frontispiece and 13 Photo- 
graphic Plates illustrating 44 Patterns, 4 Plates from the Author's Pen 
Drawings, showing 31 Stitch Diagrams and 11 Complete Objects. With 
an Introduction, Chapters on the Method, Sketches, Colour Materials 
and Application of Designs, also descriptive Notes, -with Colour Schemes. 
Crown 4to, paper wrappers, 25 6d. net, or in cloth, 35 6d. 

"There is valuable help in this book There are excellent plates in line and colour. The 
directions are clear and concise, and the articles suggested for practice are such as will 
please young people to make " Education Outlook. 

STITCH PATTERNS AND DESIGNS FOR EMBROIDERY 

By ANNE BRANDON- JONES. An independent companion volume to the 
above work, containing 48 pages with 45 photographic examples on 12 
Plates of simple and effective embroidery Motives, a Frontispiece in colour, 
and numerous Text Illustrations of Stitches and Methods. Crown 4to, 
paper wrappers, 35. od. net, or in cloth, 4$. od net. 

CANVAS EMBROIDERY 

A Manual for Students and Amateurs by LOUISA F. PESEL. Containing 
48 pages of text, a coloured Frontispiece, and 14 specially prepared Plates 
showing Stitches and methods. Medium oblong 4to, paper wrappers, 
35. net, or bound in clotib, 43 net. 

ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. L DOUBLE-RUNNING, OR 
BACK STITCH 

By LOUISA F PESEL With coloured Frontispiece, 10 specially drawn 
Plates of 45 Working Designs, and 8 Plates from Photographs of 10 
English and Coptic Samplers, comprising numerous Patterns and Motives. 
With Practical Text and a Preface by ETTA CAMPBELL, Embroidery Teacher, 
Winchester School of Arts. Uniform with "Canvas Embroidery." Large 
oblong 410, paper wrappers, 35. net, or boards, cloth back, 43. net. 

ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. II. CROSS-STITCH 

By LOUISA F. PESEL. With a Coloured Frontispiece, 10 specially drawn 
Plates of 32 Working Designs, etc , and 8 Plates from Photographs of 
15 typical English Samplers and Objects. Comprising 43 subjects, giving 
hundreds of Patterns and Motives. With Practical Text and a Preface by 
Professor R GLEADOWE, late Slade Professor of Fine Arts, Oxford University. 
Large oblong 4to, paper wrappers, 35. net, or boards, cloth back, 45. net. 

HISTORIC TEXTILE FABRICS 

By RICHARD GLAZIER. Containing Materials The Loom Pattern 
Tapestries Dyed and Printed Fabrics Church Vestments, etc , with 
about 100 Plates from Photographs and from the Author's Drawings, 
including 4 in colour, and 43 Line Diagrams, illustrating over 200 varieties 
of Textile Design. Large 8vo, cloth, gilt. 2is net 



NEEDLEWORK, EMBROIDERY, TEXTILES 



ILLUSTRATED STITCHERY DECORATIONS 

By WINIFRED M. CLARKE. Containing 19 Plates from the Author's specially 
prepared Drawings, giving some izo useful original Motives: Borders, 
Rosettes, Floral Elements, Patterns, Lettering and Worked Objects, such as 
Bags, Blotters, etc. Including a coloured Frontispiece, Introductory Text 
and full descriptive Notes on the Plates. Crown 4to, stiff paper wrappers, 
35. net, boards, cloth back, 45. net 

"A new and extremely useful little book for the embroidery worker Miss Clarke has 
succeeded admirably in her task " Edinburgh Evening Neas 

THE BOOK OF WEAVING 

By ANNA NOTT SHOOK, U.S A. Containing 190 pages, with 12 Plates in 
colour, comprising 34 Examples, and 31 Plates of about 130 Drawings, 
many in half-tone. Small 410, cloth, lettered. i8s. net. 

The aim of this work is to make the use of the handloom practicable and 
profitable in homes, schools, and institutions. The text is in 5 sections, on 
Weaving To-day and Yesterday, How to Weave, What to Weave, Art in 
Weaving (Design, Colour, Dyeing), Who Should Weave; with full informa- 
tion on equipment, processes and materials. The drawings show details of 
working and suggested designs, and the examples in colour are from 
pieces woven by the Author's pupils, such as tapestry, rugs, bags, cushion 
covers, shawls, scarves, etc. 

THE ART AND CRAFT OF OLD LACE 

In all Countries, from the XVIth to the Early XlXth Centuries By ALFRED 
VON HENNEBERG. With an Introduction by WILHELM PINDER. Con- 
taining a full original account of the Development of Style and an Analysis 
of Technique and Texture. Including descriptive Notes and a Bibliography. 
Illustrated by 190 full-page Plates, 8 in colour, giving 60 specimens from 
scale diagrams and 250 of the finest pieces of Old Lace. Large 4to, cloth, 
gilt $ 35. net. 

THE SMALLER HOUSE OF TO-DAY 

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INDEX OF AUTHORS' NAMES 



Agniel, Art of the Body, 24 
Allen Cheap Cottage 1'S 

- Small House, 28 
Anderson & Spiers, Greece and 

Rome, 3 

Anderson, Italy, 3 
Ashbee, Teaching Art, 29 
Ash by, Arch of Rome, 3 

Bailey, Spanish Towns, 33 
Batsford, Mural Mnnuments, B 

- & Pry, Homes & Gardens, 14 

- Scotland, 14 
Bell, P<swter, 10 

Beveridge, Renaissance Wood- 

work, 7 
Blake & Hopkins, OW Furniture, 

Blum, History of Art, 12 
Brandon-Jones, SJtteA Patterns, 

27 
Braun.C&tW *n Xrt, 25 

- Figures, Faces, Folds, 25 

- Laughs and Smiles, 25 
Brereton, Clothing, 21 

- Traud, 21 
Budden, Gothic Churches, 5 
Burlington Magazine Mono- 

graphs, 11 

Burton, Porcelain, 10 
Butterfield, FJomJ Forms, 22 

Carpenter, Colour, 23 
Casteels, New Style, 1 
Chadwick, Fashion Drawing, 23 
Chancellor, 18/A Century, 15 

- Regency Period, 15 
Chnsfce, Samplers, 26 

Clarke, StitcJiery Decorations, 28 
Collectors' Library, 10 
Cotterell, Pewter, 10 
Cox, J. C., CfcwcA Fittings, 

- County Churches, 6 
Crossley, Monuments, 6 
Crossley & Howard, Church 

Woodwork, 5 
Cundall, TFater CoZowr P<tng, 



n, Raffles, 25 
Day, Alphabets, 25 

- Needlework, 27 

- Pattern Dt*n, 21 

- Nature and Ornament, 22 
Defoe, Tow of London, 13 

De Loo, Renders' Collection, 13 
Dinsmoor, Gr& Architecture, 3 

Eberlem, Little-Known England, 

36 

Ellwood, Pn Drawing, 22 
Ellwood & Yerbury, Human 

Form. 24 
Evan-Thomas, Wood DtowtZs, 8 



Farcy & Edwards, ^rc 
Drawing, 29 

Fenn, Abstract Design, 21 
Fenn & Wylhe, Furniture, 10 



Fems, Metropolis of To-morrow, 

Fleming Folk Tales, 20 
Fletcher, Architecture, 1 
Ford, Landscape of England, 14 

Garner & Stratton, Tudor Archi- 
tecture, 5 

Garside, Furniture, 7 
Georgian Art, 31 
Glass, Drawing, Design, 26 

Modelling, 26 

Sketching, 23 

Glazier, Ornament, 20 

Godfrev, English Architecture, 5 

Gardens, 16 

Gotch, English House, 4 
Gregory, Home Making, 28 
Grober, Toys, 9 

Hake & Button, Archl Drawing, 

29 

Hamilton, Byzantine Arch'e, 3 
Hartley, Medusval Costume, 17 
Hartley & Elliot, Life and Work, 

Haupt, Italian Palace*, 3 
Henneberg, Old Lace, 28 
Higgms, Pen Practice, 25 
Historic Interiors in Colour, 8 
Hohson, Porcelain, 9 
Hooper & Shirley, Handcrafl, 29 
Horth, 101 Things, 26 

Jackson, English Plate, 10 
ekvll, Household Life, 35 
ones, OW StZwrr, 6 

Touring England, 16 

Jourdam, Decot atwn and Furni- 
ture, 8 

Interiors, 7 

Plasterwork, 11 

Keeley, Bungalows, 29 

Kelly fcSchwabe, Costume, 36,17 

Knowles, Dutch Pottery, 10 

Lenygon, Decoration and Furni- 
ture, 8 

Lei>erhulme Art Monographs, 9 
Lt&rary of Decorative Aft, 8 
Lutz, Graphic Figures, 22 

Macquoid Furniture, 9 
Mawson, Garden-making, 16 
Mever, Ornament, 21 
Morley, OW Playing Cards, 10 
Moussinac, ^4rf of Theatre, 1 
Mulhner, Decorative Arts, 11 

Noble, Animal Drawing, 23 

Oliver, Cottage 15 
OW Master Dramngs, 12 

Park, Limns Sculpture, 24 
Parker, Wa# Drawings, 12 
Pearce, Composition, 22 



Pearse, C*#e o/ Goorf Ho*, 4 
Pesel, Embroidery Works, 27 
Phillips, Obrisset, 9 
Pijoan, History of Art, 32 
Pulbrook, Country Life, 35 
Countryside, 14 

Quennell, Everyday Life. 39 

Everydav Things, 18 

O, 20 

Reilly, &fo<f British Architect<,2 
Renders' Collection, 13 
Ricci, Lowts ^/P Furniture, 7 
Richardson, Georgian England, 

Richardson & Eberlem, Jws, 15 

Smaller House, 5 

Robins, Ftching, 26 
Roe, C/turrA Ctetfs, 7 
Rowe, Woodcarving, 26 

Sagho, French Furniture, 10 
Salwey, .& Pencil, 22 

Sketching, 23 

Salzman TWo? England, 39 
Sawer. Ewrytfov ^4 ri, 24 

Perspective, 24 

Sketching, 24 

Seaby, Xrt o/ Mankind, 32 

jDratwwg, 22 

tfowan Alphabet, 2* 

Shand, Theatres & Ctn^wos, 2 
Shirley, Metalcraft t 29 
Shook, Weaving, 28 
Shore, Dinner Building, 26 

Touring London, 15 

Spanish Art, 31 

Speltz, S/y/fls of Ornament, 21 
Spiers, Orders, 1 
Stathara, Architecture. 2 
Stratton, XrcW Diagrams, 4 

Elements, 2 

Orders, 4 

Strzygowski, Church Art, 4 
Sugden & Edmondson, WK 
paper, 10 

Tatlock, EngZtsA Painting, 9 
Todd & Mortimer, Modem 

Decoration, 1 
Townsend, Decorative Art, 22 

Vallance, Crosses and Lychgates, 

6 
Villiers-Stuart, Slants A Gardens, 

16 

Warland, Masonry, 28* 
Waterhouse, S/orv of Archtre., 2 
Weaver, Lcadwork, 6 
Wells, Furniture, 29 
Williamson, Conversation Pieces, 

Wylhe, Furniture, 10 

Sheffield Plate, 10 

Wickham, Villages, 14 



A/fl<fc flmi Printed in Great Britain by The Stanhope Press Ltd, Rochester